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Table 3 Comparison of Cox proportional hazards model (Cox) and flexible parametric proportional hazards model (FPM), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals)

From: Flexible parametric modelling of cause-specific hazards to estimate cumulative incidence functions

  Breast cancer Other cancer
  Cox FPM Cox FPM
Ages 18-59 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ages 60-69 0.90 (0.83, 0.97) 0.90 (0.83, 0.98) 2.12 (1.52, 2.94) 2.12 (1.52, 2.95)
Ages 70-79 1.27 (1.17, 1.37) 1.27 (1.17, 1.37) 3.18 (2.31, 4.37) 3.19 (2.32, 4.38)
Ages 80+ 2.08 (1.90, 2.28) 2.09 (1.91, 2.29) 6.59 (4.73, 9.17) 6.63 (4.76, 9.23)
Localised 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Regional 4.15 (3.85, 4.47) 4.15 (3.85, 4.47) 2.15 (1.61, 2.88) 2.16 (1.61, 2.88)
Distant 33.68 (31.08, 36.50) 33.84 (31.23, 36.67) 25.58 (19.18, 34.12) 25.82 (19.36, 34.44)
  Heart disease Other causes
  Cox FPM Cox FPM
Ages 18-59 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Ages 60-69 4.76 (3.62, 6.24) 4.76 (3.62, 6.24) 3.46 (2.89, 4.14) 3.46 (2.89, 4.14)
Ages 70-79 17.05 (13.42, 21.67) 17.07 (13.43, 21.69) 10.22 (8.73, 11.96) 10.22 (8.73, 11.96)
Ages 80+ 70.57 (55.84, 89.17) 70.75 (55.99, 89.40) 31.54 (27.00, 36.84) 31.60 (27.07, 36.91)
Localised 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Regional 1.42 (1.27, 1.60) 1.42 (1.27, 1.60) 1.11 (1.01, 1.26) 1.11 (1.02, 1.22)
Distant 2.44 (1.89, 3.14) 2.46 (1.91, 3.16) 2.08 (1.67, 2.58) 2.09 (1.68, 2.60)