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Table 11 Association between sponsor and clinical outcomes: Necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis and antibiotic use

From: Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

  Source of funding Positive* Neutral* Chi-square p value Fisher’s exact p value
n (%)$$ n (%)$$
Necrotising enterocolitis N = 11 Industry   4 (36.4) 0.118 0.273
  None/Not clear   3 (27.3)   
  Non industry 2 (18.2) 2 (18.2)   
Sepsis N = 10 Industry   2 (20) Not Valid  
  None/Not clear   3 (30)   
  Non industry   5 (50)   
Antibiotic use N = 19 Industry 4 (21.1) 4 (21.1) 0.031# 0.039#
  None/Not clear   5 (26.3)   
  Non industry   6 (31.6)   
  1. $$ Overall percentage.
  2. *Positive: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation had a statistically significant effect, p < 0.05. There were significant differences between study groups (in favour of experimental group).
  3. *Neutral: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation did not have a statistically significant effect, p > 0.05, No significant differences between study groups.
  4. # Significant p < 0.05.