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Table 15 Association between sponsor and conclusion on reported outcome: Stool characteristics

From: Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

Stool characteristics Source of funding No conclusion on reported outcome Positive Negative Pearson’s chi Square Fisher’s exact p value
n (%)$$ n (%)$$ n (%)$$
Stool frequency N = 38 Industry 21 (55.3) 9 (23.7)   0.809 1.00
  None / Not clear 5 (13.2) 2 (5.3)    
  Non industry 1 (2.6)     
  Total 27 (71.1) 11 (28.9)    
Stool consistency n =39 Industry 18 (46.2) 13 (33.3)   0.699 1.00
  None / Not clear 4 (10.3) 3 (7.7)    
  Non industry 1 (2.6)     
  Total 23 (59) 16 (41)    
Stool pH N =12 Industry 5 (41.7) 3 (25)   0.679 1.00
  None / Not clear 2 (16.7) 2 (16.7)    
  Non industry      
  Total 7 (58.3) 5 (41.7)    
Stool short chain fatty acids N = 9 Industry 3 (33.3) 3 (33.3)   0.638 1.00
  None / Not clear 1 (11.1) 1 (11.1)    
  Non industry 1 (11.1)     
  Total 5 (55.6) 4 (44.4)    
Flatulence/Gas N = 15 Industry 10 (66.7) 4 (26.7)   0.533 1.00
  None / Not clear      
  Non industry 1 (6.7)     
  Total 11 (73.3) 4 (26.7)    
Diarrhoea, Diarrhoea episodes N = 18 Industry 7 (38.9) 5 (27.8) 1 (5.6) 0.484 0.557
  None / Not clear 2 (11.1)     
  Non industry 3 (16.7)     
  Total 12 (66.7) 5 (27.8) 1 (5.6)   
Constipation N = 4 Industry 2 (50) 1 (25)   0.505 1.00
  None / Not clear      
  Non industry 1(25)     
  Total 3 (75) 1 (25) 1 (25)   
  1. $$ Overall percentage.