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Table 8 Association between Sponsor and clinical outcomes: Tolerance symptoms

From: Association between funding source, methodological quality and research outcomes in randomized controlled trials of synbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics added to infant formula: A Systematic Review

Tolerance Source of funding Positive* Negative* Neutral* Chi-square p value Fisher’s exact p value
n (%)$$ n (%)$$ n (%)$$
Colic N = 13 Industry 1 (7.7)   11 (84.6) 0.764 1.00
  None/Not clear      
  Non industry    1 (7.7)   
Spitting up/Regurgitation N = 26 Industry 2 (7.7) 1 (3.8) 17 (65.4) 0.907 1.00
  None/Not clear    4 (15.4)   
  Non industry    2 (7.7)   
Vomiting N = 31 Industry 1 (3.2)   23 (74.2) 0.860 1.00
  None/Not clear    5 (16.1)   
  Non industry    2 (6.5)   
Crying fussiness N =22 Industry 3 (13.6) 1 (4.5) 14 (63.6) 0.581 1.00
  None/Not clear    4 (18.2)   
  Non industry    0   
Gastric residuals, Abdominal distension N = 5 Industry    1 (20) 0.659 1.00
  None/Not clear    1 (20)   
  Non industry 1 (6.7)   2 (40)   
Volume of formula consumed/daily intake N = 31 Industry 3 (9.7) 1 (3.2) 18 (58.1) 0.758 1.00
  None/Not clear    4 (12.9)   
  Non industry    5 (16.1)   
Days to full enteral feeding N = 9 Industry    4 (44.4) 0.325 0.444
  None/Not clear 1 (11.1)   1 (11.1)   
  Non industry 1 (11.1)   2 (22.2)   
  1. $$Overall percentage.
  2. *Positive: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation had a statistically significant effect, p < 0.05. There were significant differences between study groups (in favour of experimental group).
  3. *Neutral: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation did not have a statistically significant effect, p > 0.05, No significant differences between study groups.
  4. *Negative: synbiotic, probiotic or prebiotic supplementation had a statistically significant increase in an adverse event / negative outcome, p < 0.05.