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Table 1 Summary of the included studies

From: Reducing the time-lag between onset of chest pain and seeking professional medical help: a theory-based review

Authors/date Study design Population Outcomes Quality grade
Albarran et al., 2007 Interview 12 women with coronary heart disease (CHD) Description of symptoms **
Banks & Dracup K, 2007 Questionnaire and interview 61 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), half male/female Response to Symptoms Questionnaire, hours between symptoms and hospital admission **
Buckley et al., 2007 RCT 200 people with history of CHD, mixed gender Modified Response Questionnaire ****
Bunde & Martin R, 2006 Questionnaire and interview 433 post-AMI patients, 71% male Neuroticism questionnaire, depression questionnaire, reported behaviour **
Dracup et al., 2009 RCT 3522 patients with CHD Time to presentation, Acute Cardiac Symptoms (ACS) Response Index ****
Dracup et al., 2008 Questionnaire 3522 patients with CHD ACS Response Index Knowledge Scale **
Fukuoka Y, 2007 Interview 1059 patients with AMI, 745 male Description of symptom attribution **
Fox-Wasylyshyn et al., 2010 Questionnaire and interview 135 recently diagnosed AMI patients Symptom Congruence Scale, Coping with Heart Attack Symptoms Scale, report of delay, views regarding attribution of symptoms **
Fox-Wasylyshyn, 2007 Secondary analysis of patient data 109 patients with previous AMI and 26 with no history of AMI Likert scales with items relating to coping strategies **
Galdas et al., 2007 Interview 56 males diagnosis of AMI Views, perceptions of behaviour and common understandings **
Gallagher et al., 2010 Interview 10 women post AMI Reported experiences **
Harralson, 2007 Interview and questionnaires 65 female patients with CHD Reported barriers to delay, self-rating of health and support, depression inventory **
Hwang et al., 2006 Secondary analysis of questionnaire data 239 patients with AMI Myocardial Infarction Symptoms Profile, Representation of Heart Attack Symptoms questionnaire, delay time **
Henriksson et al., 2007 Focus group 13 AMI patients and 14 relatives mixed gender Recollection of thoughts and behaviours **
Herning et al., 2010 Interview 14 female patients with STEMI Recollection of thoughts and behaviours **
Higginson, 2008 Interview 25 post-MI women Recollection of thought processes and coping strategies **
Kaur et al., 2006 Interview 27 AMI patients, 59% male Recollection of thoughts and behaviours **
Khan et al., 2007 Questionnaire and interview 720 AMI patients, 22% female Delay time, clinical history, pain severity, knowledge of heart attack symptoms ***
Khraim & Carey, 2009 Systematic review Patients with AMI Predictors of delay **
Lovlien et al., 2006 Questionnaire 82 AMI patients, 44 male Lifestyle, medical history, symptoms, factors influencing delay **
Løvlien et al., 2007 Questionnaire 533 patients with AMI, 384 male Reported response, delay time, self-medication ***
McKinley et al., 2009 RCT 3522 people with CHD ACS Response Index ****
Morgans et al., 2008 Questionnaire 600 emergency department attendees Coping Responses Inventory, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control, delay time **
Noureddine et al., 2006 Questionnaire and medical record review 204 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, 72% male Response to Symptoms Questionnaire, delay time **
Noureddine, 2009 Secondary analysis of questionnaire data 210 patients with ACS, 70% male Response to Symptoms Questionnaire **
Perkins-Porras et al., 2009 Interview and medical note analysis 228 ACS patients, 178 male History, risk factors, attribution of symptoms, time of admission, symptom onset **
Riegel et al., 2008 RCT 1777 patients at risk of ACS Emergency admission, history, pain ACS beliefs ****
Ruston & Clayton, 2007 Interview 44 female patients following cardiac event Interpretation of symptoms and action taken **
Sullivan et al., 2009 Questionnaire 796 patients with suspected ischemic heart disease, 77% male Relationships Scales Questionnaire, intentions about seeking care, Seattle Angina Questionnaire, Perceived risk of MI, depression scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory ***
Thuresson M, 2007 Questionnaire and examination of medical records 1939 ACS patients, 75% male Interpretation and response to symptoms, patient actions, the decision-making process, delay ***
Tullmann et al., 2007 RCT 115 Over 65 year old AMI patients, 52% female Response Questionnaire, Control Attitude Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory Anxiety Subscale ***
Turris, 2008 Interview 16 females who sought emergency department care Experiences of care **
Turris, 2009 Interview 16 females seeking emergency department care Reported decision-making strategies and knowledge **
Turris et al., 2008 Observation and interview 100 hours of observation, interviews with 16 females attending emergency departments, interviews with 3 nurses Reported interpretation of symptoms and decision-making **
Vavouranakis et al., 2010 Observation, interview, questionnaire 348 patients with MI, higher ratio males Delay time, factors for delay **
Zegrean et al., 2009 Secondary analysis of interview and questionnaire data 135 AMI patients, 72% male Decision delay, Response to Symptoms Questionnaire, coping strategies **