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Table 2 Summary of socially disadvantaged groups in the 116 included studies

From: Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups

Group N of studies References*
Ethnic/racial groups (e.g. Latino, Hispanics, Asian, or mixed) 40 [1416, 18, 2022, 29, 38, 42, 4446, 56],[57, 6064, 67, 77, 80, 8587, 90, 9294],[101, 103105, 107112, 127]
African American 19 [19, 25, 28, 31, 36, 37, 41, 43],[44, 47, 50, 57, 58, 7073, 75, 81]
Substance abusers 14 [23, 24, 33, 34, 6567, 79, 80, 82],[83, 95, 98, 126]
General - ‘vulnerable’, ‘minority’, ‘disadvantaged’ 11 [30, 32, 48, 51, 52, 72, 97, 78],[84, 89, 120]
Indigenous people 8 [113115, 117, 118, 121, 125, 128]
Low income, disadvantaged area 7 [54, 64, 96, 99, 106, 108, 119]
HIV (alone or with drug addiction or ethnic) 7 [35, 64, 67, 76, 100, 124, 129]
Low income rural 7 [49, 6871, 74, 88]
Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) 4 [38, 51, 83, 102]
Low literacy group 4 [45, 48, 86, 87]
Homeless people 4 [27, 40, 59, 95]
High risk Youth 3 [39, 55, 66]
Survivors of violence 3 [17, 26, 53]
Sex workers 1 [122]
Mental illness 1 [40]
People with a disability 1 [116]
  1. *Study may appear in more than one category if more than one population group was investigated.