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Table 3 Mediation analysis: Total, direct and indirect effects with 95% confidence intervals

From: Mediation analysis of the relationship between institutional research activity and patient survival

Effect (of trial hospital vs. non-trial hospital) HR 95% CI
Total effect 0.58 [0.41; 0.80]
Direct effect 0.67 [0.47; 0.92]
Indirect effect (through surgery) 0.93 [0.84; 1.02]
Indirect effect (through chemotherapy) 0.93 [0.84; 1.01]
Indirect effect (through both surgery and chemotherapy) 0.87 [0.75; 0.98]