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Table 1 Reassessment of the “three solutions” and associated ethical principles in the old and new models of clinical research and medical care

From: Clinical research and medical care: towards effective and complete integration

“Traditional Model”: separation between clinical research and medical care “New model”: integration of clinical research and medical care
• Researcher-oriented informed consent and high level of oversight (paternalistic beneficence) • Patient-oriented informed consent (autonomy) and risk-based ethical oversight (no maleficence)
• Clinical equipoise (physician authority) • Clinical equipoise + Patient equipoise (autonomy)
• Therapeutic orientation (beneficence) • Altruism-based research (autonomy)