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Table 2 Composition of Reference Standard

From: Identifying observational studies of surgical interventions in MEDLINE and EMBASE

Study design Total MEDLINE EMBASE
  N % N % N %
Comparative – prospective 19 (8.7) 18 (8.7) 16 (8.4)
Comparative – retrospective 16 (7.4) 14 (6.8) 13 (6.8)
Case series – prospective 104 (47.9) 99 (48.1) 93 (48.7)
Case series – retrospective 70 (32.3) 67 (32.5) 61 (31.9)
Case series – unclear 8 (3.7) 8 (3.9) 8 (4.2)
TOTAL 217 (100.0) 206 (100.0) 191 (100.0)