Skip to main content

Table 1 Sources of Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) and Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) questionnaire

From: Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

Domain Definition of problem risk Description of questions (questionnaire item source)
Accident prevention Driving without using seat belt Use of seatbelt [26]
Alcohol use Possible hazardous alcohol use (based on age- and gender-specific limits of quantity and frequency of self-reported alcohol use) The WHO Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [15]
Falls History of repeated falls in previous 12 months Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group Survey [20]
  Self-reported limitation of activities due to fear of falling Fear of falling [32]
Functional status Difficulty/need for human assistance in ≥1 BADL item Basic activities of daily living (BADL) [19]
  Difficulty/need for human assistance in ≥2 IADL items Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) [22]
  Changed kind of activity Preclinical mobility disability [13]*
  Decreased frequency of activity  
Health status Moderate or fair self-perceived health status Self-perceived health status [18]
Hearing Impaired hearing Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly [23]
  No hearing check-up in previous year History of hearing examination [33]
Incontinence Urinary incontinence on > 5 days during the last year Urinary incontinence (Medical, Epidemiological and Social Aspects of Aging Project Questionnaire) [17]
Medication use Use of ≥4 medications Use of medications [2]
  Use of long-acting benzodiazepine or amitriptyline Inappropriate medication use [14] *
  Medication side effect Medication side effects [35]
  Difficulties with medication compliance Medication compliance [2]
Medical History Presence of chronic condition(s) Chronic conditions [18]
Memory Memory problems Memory Self Report [28]
Mood Depressive mood 5-item Mental Health Inventory Screening Test [29]
Nutrition Consumption of >2 high fat food items per day Cholesterol Reduction in Seniors Program Fat Food Screening
   Questionnaire [31]
  Consumption of < 5 fruit/fibre items per day Cholesterol Reduction in Seniors Program Plant Food Screening
   Questionnaire [31]*
  Motivation for change in fat intake/fruit intake Transtheoretical model of behaviour change [2, 21,27]
  Body mass index <20 or ≥27; loss of weight Self-reported height and weight (body mass index), weight change
Oral Health* Oral health problem Geriatric oral health assessment index [11]*
  No dental check in previous year History of dental care [33]
Pain* Presence of moderate to severe pain Geriatric Pain Measure [12]*
Physical activity Less than 5 times/week moderate or strenuous activity Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly [34]
  Motivation for behaviour change Transtheoretical model of behaviour change [2,21,27]
Preventative care No blood pressure control in previous year History of blood pressure measurement [33]
  Elevated self-reported blood pressure Self-reported blood pressure
  No mammography in previous 2 years History of breast cancer screening [33]
  No cervical smear in previous 3 years History of cervical smear [33]
  No cholesterol measurement in previous 5 years History of cholesterol measurement [33]
  Elevated self-reported cholesterol Self-reported cholesterol level
  No faecal occult blood test in previous year History of colon cancer screening [33]
  No blood glucose measurement in previous 3 years History of diabetes screening [33]
  No influenza vaccination in previous year History of influenza immunisation [33]
  No pneumococcal vaccination (ever) History of pneumococcal immunisation [33]
Social factors Low level of emotional support Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey [29]
  High risk of social isolation Lubben Social Network Scale [24]
  Marginal family ties Subscale Lubben Social Network Scale [24]
  Marginal friendship ties Lubben Social Network Scale [24]
  No participation in groups Single-item question [16]
Tobacco use Current tobacco use Tobacco use (Partners in Prevention Tobacco Use Questionnaire) [2]
  Motivation for behaviour change Transtheoretical model of behaviour change [2,21,27]
Vision Problem in ≥ 1 vision sub-domain Visual Functioning Questionnaire [25]*
  No vision check-up in previous year History of vision examination [33]
  1. In addition, the questionnaire includes socio-demographics survey items (age, gender, education, professional activity, living arrangement) and a survey for participant feed-back to the questionnaire. Items marked with an asterisk (*) were added to the HRA-O questionnaires and are NOT included in the HRA-E.