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Table 2 Comparison of responders (persons who returned the Health Risk Appraisal for Older Persons (HRA-O) questionnaire) with non-responders (persons who did not return the HRA-O questionnaire) at the three study sites

From: Development, feasibility and performance of a health risk appraisal questionnaire for older persons

Baseline characteristics London (U.K.) Hamburg (Germany) Solothurn (Switzerland)
  Responders Non-responders P-value Responders Non-responders P-value Responders Non-responders P-value
Age (years) 74.7 ± 6.3 (1090) 74.8 ± 6.7 (150) 0.70 71.5 ± 7.6 (804) 75.5 ± 7.8 (74) 0.002 74.5 ± 5.8 (748) 74.4 ± 6.0 (126) 0.87
Female gender 55.0% (599/1090) 58.0% (87/150) 0.71 60.9% (490/804) 67.6% (50/74) 0.67 56.7% (424/748) 57.9% (73/126) 0.87
Fair/poor self-perceived health 23.1% (252/1090) 34.7% (52/150) 0.004 36.3% (292/804) 63.5% (47/74) <.0001 19.0% (142/748) 25.4% (32/126) 0.10
≥ 1 hospital admission over past 12 months 13.6% (148/1090) 16.7% (25/150) 0.52 21.6% (174/804) 16.2% (12/74) 0.09 20.5% (153/748) 16.7% (21/126) 0.23
> 6 physician visits over past 12 months 20.5% (223/1090) 26.7% (40/150) 0.16 50.1% (403/804) 47.3% (35/74) 0.15 23.3% (174/748) 28.6% (36/126) 0.06
No available caregiver if needed 17.2% (187/1090) 20.7% (31/150) 0.36 16.7% (134/804) 29.7% (22/74) 0.07 10.0% (75/748) 8.7% (11/126) 0.53
Pra score 0.27 ± 0.11 (1090) 0.28 ± 0.12 (150) 0.36 0.30 ± 0.11 (804) 0.30 ± 0.12 (74) 0.71 0.29 ± 0.11 (748) 0.29 ± 0.10 (126) 0.86
  1. Values are percentages (nominator/denominator) or means ± standard deviations (denominator).
  2. P-values based on multivariable logistic regression models with covariate pool consisting of the individual Pra items.
  3. Pra score: Probability of repeated admissions; higher scores denote higher risk for hospital admission and other adverse outcomes. for definition see Methods section.