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Table 1 Renal Physiological Parameters from Low-Dose Dopamine Meta-Analysis 1 Day After Starting Therapy [7].

From: The ratio of means method as an alternative to mean differences for analyzing continuous outcome variables in meta-analysis: A simulation study

     Effect Measure
Parameter Number of Trials Number of Patients   MD SMD RoM
Urine Output 33 1654 Estimate -- 0.49 1.24
    95% CI -- 0.29 to 0.69 1.14 to 1.35
    p-value -- <0.001 <0.001
    I 2 -- 71% 77%
Serum Creatinine 32 1807 Estimate -3.51 -0.28 0.96
    95% CI -6.71 to -0.23 -0.51 to -0.06 0.93 to 0.99
    p-value 0.04 0.01 0.01
    I 2 73% 79% 73%
Creatinine Clearance 22 1077 Estimate -- 0.10 1.06
    95% CI -- -0.02 to 0.22 1.01 to 1.11
    p-value -- 0.10 0.02
    I 2 -- 0% 0%
  1. The pooled effect measure results are presented along with their 95% confidence intervals and null hypothesis p-values for each of the three renal physiological variables evaluated in the meta-analysis, urine output, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance, 1 day after the start of therapy. The degree of heterogeneity, expressed using the I 2 statistic for each of the pooled effect measures for each of the variables is also shown. For urine output and creatinine clearance, MD could not be used because units differed across studies. In contrast, all serum creatinine values were expressed as or could be converted to identical units (μmol/L), allowing this variable to also be analyzed using MD.
  2. Abbreviations: CI – confidence interval, I 2I 2 heterogeneity statistic, MD – mean difference, RoM – ratio of means, SMD – standardized mean difference