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Figure 4 | BMC Medical Research Methodology

Figure 4

From: Reducing bias through directed acyclic graphs

Figure 4

a-b. In Step 5 (4a), we strip all the arrowheads off all the lines. In Step 6 (4b), all lines touching the covariates neuromuscular fatigue (Z1) and tissue weakness (Z2) are deleted. Because the exposure of interest (warm up exercises) is dissociated from the Outcome (injury) after Step 6, the statistical model that includes the covariates neuromuscular fatigue and tissue weakness minimizes the potential bias for the estimate of effect of warm up exercises on the risk of injury.

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