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Table 1 Results of meta-analyses of cohort studies of publication bias

From: Extent of publication bias in different categories of research cohorts: a meta-analysis of empirical studies

Cohort category No. of cohort studies Pooled odds ratio
(95% CI)
Heterogeneity test:
I 2 (p value)
Statistically significant versus non-significant results
Inception cohorts 4 2.40 (1.18 to 4.88) 61% (0.05)
Regulatory cohorts 1 11.06 (0.56 to 219.68)  
Abstract cohorts 12 1.62 (1.34 to 1.96) 40% (0.08)
Manuscript cohorts 2 1.15 (0.64 to 2.10) 48% (0.17)
Positive versus non-positive results
Inception cohorts 12 2.78 (2.10 to 3.69) 37% (0.09)
Regulatory cohorts 4 5.00 (2.01 to 12.45) 64% (0.04)
Abstract cohorts 27 1.70 (1.44 to 2.02) 61% (<0.001)
Manuscript cohorts 4 1.06 (0.80 to 1.39) 22% (0.28)
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