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Table 4 Estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models for a negative outcome status at six months, based on five scenarios for patient and aggregated data availability

From: Strategies for monitoring and evaluation of resource-limited national antiretroviral therapy programs: the two-phase design

  Complete patient data (N = 82,887) Aggregated quarterly-clinic data (N = 1,518) Case–control study (N = 5,000) Two-phase studyd
Design #1 (N = 5,000) Design #2 (N = 5,000)
  OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Age a           
 Linear 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) 0.35 (0.19, 0.66) 0.94 (0.25, 0.52) 0.94 (0.87, 1.01) 0.88 (0.80, 0.95)
 Quadratic 1.06 (1.05, 1.07) 0.77 (0.54, 1.10) 1.05 (0.88, 1.00) 1.04 (0.99, 1.08) 1.03 (0.98, 1.08)
Gender           
 Male REF   REF   REF   REF   REF  
 Femaleb 0.72 (0.69, 0.74) 0.87 (0.82, 0.93) 0.75 (0.66, 0.84) 0.76 (0.67, 0.87) 0.71 (0.62, 0.82)
WHO stage           
 1/2 REF   REF   REF   REF   REF  
 3/4c 3.33 (2.97, 3.74) 1.57 (1.44, 1.72) 3.69 (2.62, 5.20) 3.31 (2.41, 4.55) 4.31 (2.87, 6.46)
Region           
 Central/North REF   REF   REF   REF   REF  
 South 0.92 (0.88, 0.95) 0.88 (0.82, 0.93) 0.93 (0.83, 1.05) 0.91 (0.80, 1.04) 1.02 (0.88, 1.17)
Year of registration           
 2005 REF   REF   REF   REF   REF  
 2006 0.91 (0.87, 0.95) 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) 0.97 (0.83, 1.05) 0.83 (0.68, 1.01) 0.88 (0.83, 0.93)
 2007 0.76 (0.73, 0.80) 0.91 (0.85, 0.97) 0.74 (0.63, 0.86) 0.75 (0.62, 0.91) 0.75 (0.71, 0.80)
Clinic type           
 Public REF   REF   REF   REF   REF  
 Private 0.31 (0.20, 0.48) 1.08 (0.99, 1.19) 0.39 (0.13, 1.14) 0.31 (0.19, 0.50) 0.31 (0.20, 0.47)
Clinic/year interaction           
 Private/2006 2.16 (1.35, 3.46) 2.03 (0.95, 4.35) 2.20 (0.67, 7.28) 2.18 (1.30, 3.67) 2.20 (1.37, 3.53)
 Private/2007 2.05 (1.26, 3.32) 1.98 (0.91, 4.32) 2.36 (0.69, 8.05) 2.07 (1.21, 3.52) 1.98 (1.22, 3.21)
  1. aQuarterly-clinic cohort data model uses average age (in years).
  2. bOR for the quarterly-clinic cohort data model corresponds to a contrast of 20% in the percent female.
  3. cCovariate in the quarterly-clinic cohort data model is a binary indicator of whether or not the the percent WHO stage 3/4 is ≤/> 90%.
  4. dSee Table 2 for details; Design #1 stratifies on clinic type; Design #2 stratifies on clinic type and year of registration.