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Table 6 Cross-validation of methods and difference between sensitivity and specificity obtained before and after imputation

From: A holistic comparative analysis of diagnostic tests for urothelial carcinoma: a study of Cxbladder Detect, UroVysion® FISH, NMP22® and cytology based on imputation of multiple datasets

  Supervised imputation Unsupervised imputation
Imputation method Leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of the imputation, % Sensitivity difference before and after imputation, % Specificity difference before and after imputation, % Average absolute difference before and after imputation, % Leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of the imputation, % Sensitivity difference before and after imputation, % Specificity difference before and after imputation,% Average absolute difference before and after imputation, %
3NN  
Cytology 96.70 2.68 0.02 1.35 96.70 2.68 0.02 1.35
NMP22 83.44 3.30 0.41 1.86 83.19 3.30 0.29 1.80
FISH 83.17 7.42. 1.70 4.56 85.49 1.80 0.99 1.40
Cxbladder Detect 81.44 −1.38 0.67 1.03 80.44 1.99 3.03 2.51
Mean for method 86.19 3.01 0.70 2.20 86.46 2.44 1.08 1.76
5NN  
Cytology 96.69 2.68 0.02 1.35 96.69 2.68 0.02 1.35
NMP22 84.20 1.05 −1.03 1.04 84.07 5.54 −1.01 3.28
FISH 84.54 10.79 −4.96 7.88 85.80 8.54 −4.61 6.58
Cxbladder Detect 81.94 −1.38 −1.01 1.20 81.10 1.99 2.32 2.16
Mean for method 86.84 3.29 −1.75 2.87 86.92 4.69 −0.82 3.34
10NN  
Cytology 96.69 2.68 0.02 1.35 96.69 2.68 0.02 1.35
NMP22 86.09 1.05 −1.36 1.21 85.84 5.54 −1.12 3.33
FISH 86.12 10.79 −4.13 7.46 85.80 16.40 −3.06 9.73
Cxbladder Detect 82.44 −1.38 −2.74 2.06 81.77 0.87 0.20 0.53
Mean for method 87.84 3.29 −2.05 3.02 87.53 6.37 −0.99 3.74
MLR  
Cytology 96.69 2.68 0.02 1.35 96.69 2.68 0.02 1.35
NMP22 85.59 2.17 −1.59 1.88 85.21 5.54 −1.59 3.56
FISH 89.58 −7.19 −6.75 6.97 89.58 −7.19 −6.39 6.79
Cxbladder Detect 84.11 −1.38 5.50 3.44 84.20 1.99 −1.92 1.95
Mean for method 88.99 −0.93 −0.70 3.41 88.92 0.75 −2.47 3.42
MLP  
Cytology 95.87 1.55 0.02 0.79 95.87 2.68 0.02 1.35
NMP22 86.35 5.54 −1.59 3.56 83.19 5.54 −1.59 3.56
FISH 89.25 −9.44 −6.87 8.16 88.60 −7.19 −6.39 6.79
Cxbladder Detect 82.78 0.87 −2.39 1.63 82.47 1.99 −1.92 1.95
Mean for method 88.56 −0.37 −2.71 3.53 87.53 −2.47 −2.47 3.42
  1. Difference = measured – imputed