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Table 2 Attributes and levels for prostate cancer-screening DCE

From: Exploring how individuals complete the choice tasks in a discrete choice experiment: an interview study

Attributes Explanation Levels
Number of deaths from prostate cancer It was given that 35 out of 1000 men die because of prostate cancer when no screening program is provided. • 32 deaths (3 deaths prevented)
• 28 deaths (7 deaths prevented)
• 25 deaths (10 deaths prevented)
• 18 deaths (17 deaths prevented)
Frequency of blood test   • Every year
• Every 2 years
• Every 3 years
• Every 4 years
Number of unnecessary biopsies Number of men, per 1000 men with an elevated PSA level, in which biopsies are unnecessary. Unnecessary biopsies were defined as biopsies in which no cancer was found, but in which PSA levels suggested that there was cancer. • 200 unnecessary biopsies (800 justified biopsies)
• 400 unnecessary biopsies (600 justified biopsies)
• 600 unnecessary biopsies (400 justified biopsies)
• 800 unnecessary biopsies (200 justified biopsies)
Number of unnecessary treatments Number of men, per 1000 treated men, in whom treatment is unnecessary. Unnecessary treatment was defined as treatment that was not life prolonging, however it could lead to urine-loss and erection disorders due to treatment. • 0 unnecessary treatments (1000 justified treatments)
• 200 unnecessary treatments (800 justified treatments)
• 500 unnecessary treatments (500 justified treatments)
• 800 unnecessary treatments (200 justified treatments)
Out-of-pocket costs per year   • €0
• €50
• €100
• €300