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Table 1 Included studies and contribution to themes

From: Once a clinician, always a clinician: a systematic review to develop a typology of clinician-researcher dual-role experiences in health research with patient-participants

StudyClinical patternsConnectionStudy description
 1-Clinical Queries2-Agenda Meeting3-Helping Hands4-Research or Therapy5-Uninvited Clinical Expert6-Clinical Assumptions7-Suspicion and Holding Back8-Revelations9-Overidentification10-ManipulationAuthor (first-person), or sample (empirical) and settingMethodology
First-person accounts
Arber 2006 [52]         Nurse, palliative careEthnography
Baarnheilm and Ekblad 2002 [53]   Physician, psychiatryQualitative
Bailey 2007 [54]        Nurse, emergency departmentEthnography
Bland 2002 [30]     Nurse, nursing homesEthnography
Bonner and Tolhurst 2002 [26]         Nurse, nephrologyParticipant observation
Burns et al. 2012 [22]      Midwife, postnatal careParticipant observation
Burr 1996 [28]       Nurse, intensive careQualitative
Cartwright and Limandri 1997 [55]     Nurse, elderly careGrounded Theory
Clancy 2007 [39]      Nurse, home oxygenPhenomenology
Clinton et al. 1986 [37]      Nurse, fatheringMultiple time-series survey
Colbourne and Sque 2004 [3]     Nurse, cancer careQualitative case study
Conneeley 2002 [35]  Occupational therapist, brain injury rehabilitationPhenomenology
Gardner 1996 [6]      Nurse, hospital acquired infectionQualitative
Groenkjaer 2002 [25]        Nurse, hospital wardsCritical ethnography
Hamburg and Johansson 1999 [20]     GP, primary careGrounded Theory
Houghton et al. 2010 [56]        Nurse, hospital wardsMultiple case study
Lykkeslet and Gjengedal 2007 [36]       Nurse, surgeryEthnography
McNair et al. 2008 [1]        GP, primary careCritical phenomenology
Mitchell 2011 [29]       Midwife, pregnancyQualitative
Newbury 2011 [32]   Nurse, palliative careGrounded theory approach
Nicholl 2007 [57]     Nurse, motheringQualitative
Patterson 1994 [33]     Nurse, nursing homesParticipant observation
Profitt et al. 1993 [16]     Nurse, stroke rehabilitationRandomised trial
Richards and Emslie 2000 [38]    GP, primary careQualitative
Shaughnessy et al. 2007 [58]        Nurse, stroke rehabilitationRandomised trial
Sterling and Peterson 2005 [34]    Nurse, family systemsEthnography
Thompson and Russo 2012 [45]     Clinical psychologist, health settingsQualitative
Tuffrey-Wijne et al. 2008 [59]       Nurse, learning disabilityEthnography
Empirical reports
Beale and Wilkes 2001 [23]b     Nurses, various clinical researchDescriptive qualitative
Boase et al. 2011 [31]a        Nurses, diabetes researchFramework approach
Boydell et al. 2012 [14]b and Czoli et al. 2011 [7]b         Physicians, paediatric researchQualitative
Easter et al. 2006 [18]c         Physicians, nurses and patient-participants in gene transfer researchQualitative
Haigh et al. 2005 [19]c      Nurse, post-surgery patient-participantsCase study
Johnson and Macleod Clarke 2003 [21]c    Nurses, cancer, HIV/AIDS, dyingQualitative
Spilsbury et al. 2007 [60]b       Nurses, pressure mattress overlay researchQualitative focus group
Wilkes and Beale 2005 [24]c         Nurses, various clinical researchQualitative
  1. Key: atrustworthy, bmoderately trustworthy, ctrustworthiness uncertain, GP = general practitioner