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Table 1 Included studies and contribution to themes

From: Once a clinician, always a clinician: a systematic review to develop a typology of clinician-researcher dual-role experiences in health research with patient-participants

Study Clinical patterns Connection Study description
  1-Clinical Queries 2-Agenda Meeting 3-Helping Hands 4-Research or Therapy 5-Uninvited Clinical Expert 6-Clinical Assumptions 7-Suspicion and Holding Back 8-Revelations 9-Overidentification 10-Manipulation Author (first-person), or sample (empirical) and setting Methodology
First-person accounts
Arber 2006 [52]           Nurse, palliative care Ethnography
Baarnheilm and Ekblad 2002 [53]     Physician, psychiatry Qualitative
Bailey 2007 [54]          Nurse, emergency department Ethnography
Bland 2002 [30]       Nurse, nursing homes Ethnography
Bonner and Tolhurst 2002 [26]           Nurse, nephrology Participant observation
Burns et al. 2012 [22]        Midwife, postnatal care Participant observation
Burr 1996 [28]         Nurse, intensive care Qualitative
Cartwright and Limandri 1997 [55]       Nurse, elderly care Grounded Theory
Clancy 2007 [39]        Nurse, home oxygen Phenomenology
Clinton et al. 1986 [37]        Nurse, fathering Multiple time-series survey
Colbourne and Sque 2004 [3]       Nurse, cancer care Qualitative case study
Conneeley 2002 [35]    Occupational therapist, brain injury rehabilitation Phenomenology
Gardner 1996 [6]        Nurse, hospital acquired infection Qualitative
Groenkjaer 2002 [25]          Nurse, hospital wards Critical ethnography
Hamburg and Johansson 1999 [20]       GP, primary care Grounded Theory
Houghton et al. 2010 [56]          Nurse, hospital wards Multiple case study
Lykkeslet and Gjengedal 2007 [36]         Nurse, surgery Ethnography
McNair et al. 2008 [1]          GP, primary care Critical phenomenology
Mitchell 2011 [29]         Midwife, pregnancy Qualitative
Newbury 2011 [32]     Nurse, palliative care Grounded theory approach
Nicholl 2007 [57]       Nurse, mothering Qualitative
Patterson 1994 [33]       Nurse, nursing homes Participant observation
Profitt et al. 1993 [16]       Nurse, stroke rehabilitation Randomised trial
Richards and Emslie 2000 [38]      GP, primary care Qualitative
Shaughnessy et al. 2007 [58]          Nurse, stroke rehabilitation Randomised trial
Sterling and Peterson 2005 [34]      Nurse, family systems Ethnography
Thompson and Russo 2012 [45]       Clinical psychologist, health settings Qualitative
Tuffrey-Wijne et al. 2008 [59]         Nurse, learning disability Ethnography
Empirical reports
Beale and Wilkes 2001 [23]b      Nurses, various clinical research Descriptive qualitative
Boase et al. 2011 [31]a          Nurses, diabetes research Framework approach
Boydell et al. 2012 [14]b and Czoli et al. 2011 [7]b           Physicians, paediatric research Qualitative
Easter et al. 2006 [18]c          Physicians, nurses and patient-participants in gene transfer research Qualitative
Haigh et al. 2005 [19]c        Nurse, post-surgery patient-participants Case study
Johnson and Macleod Clarke 2003 [21]c      Nurses, cancer, HIV/AIDS, dying Qualitative
Spilsbury et al. 2007 [60]b         Nurses, pressure mattress overlay research Qualitative focus group
Wilkes and Beale 2005 [24]c          Nurses, various clinical research Qualitative
  1. Key: atrustworthy, bmoderately trustworthy, ctrustworthiness uncertain, GP = general practitioner