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Table 2 Reported Patients, Interventions, Comparisons and Outcomes in the included studies

From: A systematic review to investigate the measurement properties of goal attainment scaling, towards use in drug trials

Category First author Year Patients Tested intervention Comparison Outcome(s)
Drug study with measurement properties Cusick [29] 2006 Children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy Botox-A injections + usual care and occupational therapy Usual care and occupational therapy COPMa, GAS
Drug study with measurement properties De Beurs [20] 1993 Patients meeting the DSM-III-R criteria for panic disorder with moderate or severe agoraphobia Fluvoxamine & exposure in vivo, panic management & exposure in vivo, exposure in vivo only Placebo with exposure in vivo GAS, Self-report questionnaires, behavioral avoidance, therapist rating
Drug study with measurement properties Rockwood [27] 1996 Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease of mild to moderate severity Linopirdine placebo MMSEb, ADAS-cogc, PSMSd, IADLe, CGIf, GAS
Drug study with measurement properties Rockwood [50] 2002 Patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease Donepezil hydrochloride 5 mg 1 daily None GAS, Cognition (MMSE, ADAS-cog), physical function (PSMS, IADL, FAQg), depression (CDSh, CES-Di), CIBIC-plusj
Drug study with measurement properties Steenbeek [38] 2005 Children with cerebral palsy BTX-A treatment of the lower extremity None Six-point goal attainment scaling, MASk
Drug study without measurement properties Ashford [51] 2009 Proximal upper limb spasticity patients BoNT-A as part of a shoulder and upper limb management and rehabilitation program which was individually tailored to the patient None GAS, MAS (composite spasticity score), passive function, shoulder pain
Drug study without measurement properties Barden [52] 2014-a Participants with spasticity following acquired brain injury Botulinum toxin A injections None Dynamic Computerized Dynamometry, MAS, Tardieu Scale, Action Research Arm Test, GAS, patient disability and carer burden scales
Drug study without measurement properties Barden [53] 2014-b Convenience sample of adults with upper limb spasticity after acquired brain injury with a mean age of 51 BTX-A injections None DCD pinchl, MAS, Tardieu scale, ARATm, MHOQn, GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Bonouvrié [54] 2013 Dystonic cerebral palsy patients aged 4–25 years Continuous intrathecal baclofen for 3 months Placebo GAS, measurements of body functions (dystonia, spasticity, pain, comfort, sleep-related breathing disorders)
Drug study without measurement properties Borg [55] 2011 Adults with a stroke that occurred >3 months before the study Botulinum toxin A + standard care Placebo + standard care GAS, changes from baseline in level of goal achievement, health related Quality of Life, resource utilization
Drug study without measurement properties Demetrios [56] 2014 Adults with post-stroke spasticity High intensity ambulatory rehabilitation and Botox Usual care and Botox GAS, MASo, participant satisfaction, activity/participation measures and caregiver burden
Drug study without measurement properties Ferrari [57] 2014 Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy BoNT-A injections Placebo-injections Body functions and structure, activity and daily life, AHAp, MAS, PEDIq, GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Fietzek [58] 2009 Patients with Parkinson camptocormia Botulinum toxin injections None GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Lam [59] 2012 Patients with severe upper limb spasticity Intramuscular botulinum toxin A Saline (placebo) Carer burden scale, GAS, Ashworth scale, passive range of movement for shoulder abduction, elbow and finger extension, Pain assessment in advanced dementia scale
Drug study without measurement properties Lam [60] 2015 Long-term care patients with bilateral severe chronic hip adductor spasticity Ultrasound and electrical stimulation guided obturator nerve block using 5 % phenol Ultrasound and electrical stimulation guided obturator nerve block using saline MAS, GAS, hygiene score, distances between the knees, passive range of motion, pain (Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia Scale), incidence of bone fracture or infections
Drug study without measurement properties Leroi [61] 2014 Patients with dementia in Parkinson’s disease 20 mg of memantine Placebo GAS, Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-8, Zarit Burden Inventory
Drug study without measurement properties Löwe [62] 2006 Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, aged 2–8 Occupational therapy & BTX-A injections Occupational therapy QUESTr, average treatment effect, COPMs, GAS, PEDIt, Ashworth scale
Drug study without measurement properties Löwe [63] 2007 Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy 3 BTX-A injections (0, 6 and 18 months) 2 BTX-A injections (6 and 18 months) QUEST, GAS-parents, GAS-therapist, COPM, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability, Inventory of functional skills, Ashworth scale
Drug study without measurement properties Mall [64] 2006 Children with CP and adductor spasticity BTX-A injections Placebo Knee-knee distance, hip adduction, modified Ashworth scale, GMFMu, total score and total score without aids, GAS
Drug study without measurement properties McCrory [65] 2009 Adults with hemiplegic stroke, severe/moderately severe spasticity Botulinum toxin for upper limbs Placebo QoLv, GAS, pain, mood, global benefit, MASw, disability and carer burden
Drug study without measurement properties Molenaers [66] 2013 CP patients with lower limb BTX-A treatment, younger than 24 years of age BTX-A treatment None GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Nott [67] 2014 Community dwelling adults with acquired brain injury Botox injections None GAS, MAS, TSAx, ARATy
Drug study without measurement properties Olesch [68] 2010 Children with hemiplegic CP BoNT-A injections + occupational therapy Occupational therapy alone COPMz, GAS, QUESTaa, PDMS-FMab, MTSac
Drug study without measurement properties Rice [69] 2009 Children with predominantly dystonic CP Trihexyphenidyl Placebo Global dystonia (BAD-scalead), QUEST, COPM, GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Rockwood [70] 2006 Mild to moderate AD patients Galantamine placebo GAS, ADAS-cogae, CIBIC-plusaf, DADag, CBSah
Drug study without measurement properties Rockwood [71] 2007-a Patients with mild to moderate AD Galantamine placebo GAS, ADAS-cog, DAD, CBS.
Drug study without measurement properties Rockwood [72] 2007-b Patients diagnosed with mild to moderate AD 5 mg of donepezil for 3 months, thereafter flexibly dosed (5 or 10 mg) None ADAS-cog, CIBIC-plus, P-GAS, C-GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Rockwood [73] 2010 Mild to moderate Alzheimer’s Disease patients Flexibly dosed galantamine for 16 weeks, followed by 16 week open-label phase Placebo ADAS-cog, CIBIC-plus, P-GAS and C-GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Russo [74] 2007 Children (3–16 years) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy Localized injection of BTX-A and 4 weeks of occupational therapy 4 weeks of occupational therapy Body structure (Tardieu scale, Ashworth scale), AMPSai, GAS, PEDIaj, QoLak
Drug study without measurement properties Scheinberg [75] 2006 Children aged between 1 and 15 years with CP and clinically significant spasticity Oral baclofen Placebo GAS, MTSal, PEDI, parental satisfaction of the effects of the medication
Drug study without measurement properties Schramm [76] 2014 Patients aged 18 years or older with focal or segmental spasticity showing indication for treatment Onabotulinum toxin A None MASam, spasticity pattern, pain, active hand function, FACan, gait, timed up and go test, goals and treatment parameters, general outcome parameters
Drug study without measurement properties Turner- Stokes [77] 2007 Patients with regional spasticity following acute stroke or brain injury intervention Serial injections of botulinum toxin None MAS, Associated Reaction rating scale, gait pattern, shoulderQ, functional independence (LASISao), GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Wallen [78] 2004 Children with spastic cerebral palsy between the age of 1 and 14 years Botulinum toxin type A injections None COPMap, GAS, Melbourne assessment, CHQaq, parent questionnaire, MAS, Tardieu Scale, range of motion
Drug study without measurement properties Wallen [79] 2007 Children with CP affecting 1 or both upper limbs, aged 2–14 Single set of BTX-A injections and 12 weeks of occupational therapy Only occupational therapy or no treatment COPM, GAS, MAUULFar, CHQ
Drug study without measurement properties Ward [80] 2009 Children with spasticity and/or dystonia, as classified by a rehabilitation consultant Intrathecal baclofen therapy None COMPas, GAS
Drug study without measurement properties Ward [81] 2014 Adults with focal post-stroke spasticity Onabotulinumtoxin-A + standard of care Placebo + standard of care Number of patients achieving their principal active functional goal, or achieving a different goal at 24 weeks
Non-drug study with measurement properties Bovend’Eert [37] 2011 Hospital patients with neurological disorders participating in a RCT A motor imagery program integrated into physiotherapy and occupational therapy; refers to a previous study [82]   
Non-drug study with measurement properties Brown [32] 1998 Nonambulatory patients who had limited adaptive behavior Ability-focused physical therapy None GAS (treatment goals and control goals)
Non-drug study with measurement properties Fisher [83] 2002 Patients in a rehabilitation pain management program Multidisciplinary structured educational program of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and clinical psychology None GAS, timed tests of physical mobility measures, MPQat, NRSau, ODQav, GHQaw, PAIRSax
Non-drug study with measurement properties Gordon [30] 1999 Nursing-home patients (elderly and disabled) Specialized geriatric medicine consultation None Effect size and relative efficiency of the Barthel Index, hierarchical assessment of balance and mobility, global deterioration scale, axis 8 (behavior) of the brief cognitive rating scale, cumulative illness rating scale and GAS
Non-drug study with measurement properties Hartman [39] 1997 Residents of a SCU for persons with dementia None None GAS, COPMay, Cognitive Competency Test, Hierarchic Dementia Scale, Leisure Competence Measure, Leisurescope
Non-drug study with measurement properties Khan [40] 2008 Persons with MS admitted for comprehensive rehabilitation program MS rehabilitation program None GAS, FIMaz, Barthel Index, Clinical Global Impression
Non-drug study with measurement properties Palisano [21] 1993 Infants (4–24 months) with motor delays 2-h intervention session by an interdisciplinary team None GAS, Peabody Developmental Gross Motor Scale, behavioral objective, Movement assessment of infants
Non-drug study with measurement properties Rockwood [31] 1993 Geriatric patients admitted to geriatric inpatient wards None None GAS, Barthel Index, Functional Independence Measure, Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, Katz Activities of Daily Living Index, Spitzer Quality of Life Index
Non-drug study with measurement properties Rockwood [33] 1997 Patients undergoing cognitive rehabilitation None None GAS, Rappaport Disability Rating Scale, Kohlman Evaluation of Daily Living Skills, Milwaukee Evaluation of Daily Living, Kleinbell elimination scale and mobility scale, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, Spitzer Quality of Life Index
Non-drug study with measurement properties Rockwood [41] 2003 Frail elderly Specialized geriatric intervention usual care GAS, Barthel Index, Physical Self-maintenance scale, instrumental activities daily living, modified Spitzer Quality of Life Index
Non-drug study with measurement properties Ruble [35] 2012 Autism patients Psychosocial interventions Unclear GAS
Non-drug study with measurement properties Ruble [36] 2013-a Autism patients Web based and face-to-face coaching sessions Placebo Goal attainment (PET-GASba), process measures such as consultant and teacher fidelity
Non-drug study with measurement properties Ruble [34] 2013-b Autism patients Face-to-face, Compass intervention/face-to-face, web based compass intervention Placebo (comparison group) Child educational outcome, PET-GAS, language ability, autism severity, adaptive behavior, child engagement, maladaptive externalizing behavior
Non-drug study with measurement properties Sheldon [84] 1998 Undergraduate students Generating goals None A rated attainment scale, GAS
Non-drug study with measurement properties Steenbeek [44] 2011 Children with cerebral palsy. Aged 2–13 years Conventional multidisciplinary therapy None GAS, PEDIbb, GMFM-66bc
Non-drug study with measurement properties Stolee [26] 1999 Geriatric patients Care as usual None GAS, self-rated health, global clinical assessment, Barthel Index, OARS IADLbd scale, MMSEbe, NHPbf
Non-drug study with measurement properties Stolee [22] 2012 Patients admitted to a geriatric day hospital Geriatric day program None GAS
Non-drug study with measurement properties Turner-Stokes [42] 2009 Consecutive patients admitted for rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (any cause) over 3 years Neuro rehabilitation intervention None GAS, Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM + FAM), Barthel Index
Non-drug study with measurement properties Turner-Stokes [43] 2010 Upper-limb spasticity patients (after stroke) Intramuscular botulinum toxin-A Placebo GAS, MASbg, Global Benefit, HADSbh, AQoLbi, Patient disability score, Carer burden score
Non-drug study with measurement properties Turner-Stokes [24, 25]* 2013 Adults with post-stroke upper limb spasticity treated with one cycle of BoNT-A Botulinum toxin A None GAS, spasticity, standardized outcome measures, global benefits
Non-drug study with measurement properties Woodward [28] 1978 Families with a child between 6 and 16 years of age who was referred for academic or behavioral problems at school Family therapy None GAS
Non-drug study with measurement properties Yip [23] 1998 Patients admitted to the Geriatric Assessment and Rehabilitation Unit Rehabilitation interventions None GAS (a modified version that uses a standardized menu of goals and attainment levels)
  1. aCOPM Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
  2. bMMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
  3. cADAS-cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale
  4. dPSMS Physical Self-Maintenance Scale
  5. eIADL Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
  6. fCGI Clinical Global Impression
  7. gFAQ Functional Activities Questionnaire
  8. fCDS Cardiac Depression Scale
  9. iCES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale
  10. jCIBIC-plus Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change-Plus
  11. kMAS Modified Ashworth Scale
  12. lDCD Pinch Dynamic Computerized Dynamometry
  13. mARAT Action Research Arm Test
  14. nMHOQ Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire
  15. oMAS Modified Ashworth Scale
  16. pAHA Assisting Hand Assessment
  17. qPEDI Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory
  18. rQUEST Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test
  19. sCOPM Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
  20. tPEDI Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory
  21. uGMFM Gross Motor Function Measure
  22. vQoL Quality of Life
  23. wMAS Modified Ashworth Scale
  24. xTSA Tardieu Spasticity Angle
  25. yARAT Action Research Arm Test
  26. zCOPM Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
  27. aaQUEST Quality of Upper Extremity Skills Test
  28. abPDMS-FM Peabody Developmental Motor Scale – Fine Motor
  29. acMTS Modified Tardieu Scale
  30. adBAD-scale Barry-Albright Dystonia scale
  31. aeADAS-cog Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale
  32. afCIBIC-plus Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change-Plus
  33. agDAD Disability Assessment for Dementia
  34. ahCBS Caregiving Burden Scale
  35. aiAMPS Assessment of Motor and Process Skills
  36. ajPEDI Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory
  37. akQoL Quality of Life
  38. alMTS Modified Tardieu Scale
  39. amMAS Modified Ashworth Scale
  40. anFAC Functional Ambulation Category
  41. aoLASIS Leeds Adult Spasticity Impact Scale
  42. apCOPM Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
  43. aqCHQ Child Health Questionnaire
  44. arMAUULF Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function
  45. asCOMP Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
  46. atMPQ McGill Pain Questionnaire
  47. auNRS Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale
  48. avODQ Oswestry low back pain Disability Questionnaire
  49. awGHQ General Health Questionnaire
  50. axPAIRS Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale
  51. ayCOPM Canadian Occupational Performance Measure
  52. azFIM Functional Independence Measure
  53. baPET-GAS Psychometrically Equivalence Tested Goal Attainment Scaling
  54. bbPEDI Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory
  55. bcGMFM Gross Motor Function Measure
  56. bdOARS IADL Older Americans Resource Scale for Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
  57. beMMSE Mini-Mental State Examination
  58. bfNHP Nottingham Health Profile
  59. bgMAS Modified Ashworth Scale
  60. bhHADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  61. biAQoL Assessment of Quality of Life