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Table 1 Results for the three-level ordinal model with timing of implementation, linear time trends, respondent-level, and site-level characteristics

From: Application of a nonrandomized stepped wedge design to evaluate an evidence-based quality improvement intervention: a proof of concept using simulated data on patient-centered medical homes

Parameter Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  Coeff (SE)/OR Coeff (SE)/OR Coeff (SE)/OR Coeff (SE)/OR
Intercept, γ 000 −1.22 (0.04)/0.29** −0.821 (0.074)/0.440** −0.874 (0.144)/0.417** −1.235 (0.063)/0.291**
Threshold 2, δ 2 1.294 (0.006)/3.647** 1.294 (0.006)/3.647** 1.294 (0.006)/3.647** 1.294 (0.006)/3.647**
Threshold 3, δ 3 2.345 (0.009)/10.437** 2.345 (0.009)/10.437** 2.345 (0.009)/10.437** 2.345 (0.009)/10.437**
Time-level predictors
 QTR, γ 010 0.005 (0.005)/1.005    0.005 (0.005)/1.005
 TREAT, γ 020 0.265 (0.048)/1.303**    0.262 (0.048)/1.300**
 QTRaTREAT, γ 030 0.049 (0.007)/1.051**    0.049 (0.007)/1.051**
Respondent-level predictors
 Gender (ref: MALE)     
 FEMALE, γ 100   −0.007 (0.018)/0.993   −0.007 (0.018)/0.993
 Race/ethnicity (ref: WHITE)     
 NONWHITE, γ 200   −0.013 (0.013)/0.987   −0.013 (0.013)/0.988
Site-level predictors
 Site Size (ref: SMALL)     
 MED, γ 001    −0.085 (0.204)/0.918 −0.040 (0.083)/0.961
 LG, γ 002    0.122 (0.171)/1.130 0.049 (0.069)/1.050
  1. **p < 0.001
  2. Note: a < 0.05