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Table 3 Types of outcomes measured as primary endpoints in test-treatment RCTs

From: Test-treatment RCTs are susceptible to bias: a review of the methodological quality of randomized trials that evaluate diagnostic tests

Outcome Type Trials, n (%) aOutcome measurements, n (%)
Patient
 Symptom score 13 (25) 14 (9)
 Adverse events 8 (15) 15 (10)
 Function 8 (15) 11 (7)
 Quality of life 5 (9) 17 (11)
 Mortality 4 (8) 4 (3)
 Health perception 2 (4) 5 (3)
 Psychological morbidity 2 (4) 6 (4)
 Absenteeism 1 (2) 1 (1)
 Clinical status 9 (17) 9 (6)
 Residual disease rate 7 (13) 7 (5)
 Recurrent disease rate 6 (11) 7 (5)
 Patient outcome total 53 (54) 96 (64)
Process
 Therapeutic yield 17 (45) 20 (13)
 Timing of care 8 (21) 8 (5)
 Cost 7 (18) 7 (5)
 Appropriateness of treatment decision 5 (13) 6 (4)
 Diagnostic yield 4 (11) 5 (3)
 Process outcome total 38 (39) 46 (31)
Composite outcome
 Adverse patient and process event rate 7 (7) 7 (5)
Primary outcome not defined 6 (6) 0 (0)
Total 103 (100) 149 (100)
  1. aMany trials included more than one primary outcome