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Table 1 Example of separation due to a dichotomous predictor X against outcome Y

From: Performance of Firth-and logF-type penalized methods in risk prediction for small or sparse binary data

Complete separation Quazi-complete separation
Y Y
   1 0    1 0
X A 10 0 X A 10 0
  B 0 10   B 2 8
  1. Number in each cell indicates number of observations