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Table 4 Observed and predicted prevalence of poor health, rate difference and rate ratio for low and high educated groups with and without the implementation of the policy, as obtained using the seven methods

From: Assessing the impact of natural policy experiments on socioeconomic inequalities in health: how to apply commonly used quantitative analytical methods?

  Low-educated (%) High-educated (%) Rate difference Rate ratio
Observed prevalence with policy effect 16.63 7.49 9.14 2.22
Predicted prevalence without the policy effecta
Regression adjustment 19.11 8.00 11.11 2.39
Propensity score matching 19.03 7.99 11.04 2.38
Difference-in-differences analysis 18.97 7.98 10.99 2.38
Fixed effects models 18.84 7.88 10.96 2.39
Instrumental variable analysis 19.15 7.99 11.16 2.40
Regression discontinuity Not comparable Not comparable Not comparable Not comparable
Interrupted time-series 18.96 7.97 10.99 2.38
  1. aAs derived from the stratified analyses, reported as proportion of individuals with poor health (or, equivalently, individual probability of having poor health)