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Table 2 Results of meta-analyses with and without Non-English studies

From: Grey literature in systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of the contribution of non-English reports, unpublished studies and dissertations to the results of meta-analyses in child-relevant reviews

  Number of studies Number of participants Pooled estimate (95% CI)
Summary measure
% change in effect size/CI width Difference in estimates
Review With non-English Without non-English % lost With non-English Without non-English % lost With non-English Without non-English   
Acute respiratory infections
 Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold (CD000980) 29 26 10.3 11306 10899 3.6 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)
RR
0.96 (0.93, 0.99) 1.1/0.0 Negligible
 Epinephrine for bronchiolitis (CD003123) 6 5 16.7 995 965 3.0 0.67 (0.50, 0.89)
RR
0.68 (0.51, 0.91) 1.5/2.6 Negligible
 Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in ARI (CD007498) 14 13 7.1 4211 4168 1.0 0.91 (0.70, 1.19)
OR
0.90 (0.69, 1.19) 1.1/2.0 Negligible
 Immunostimulants for preventing ARI in children (CD004974) 35 23 34.3 4060 2866 29.4 −1.24 (−1.54, -0.94)
MD
−1.27 (−1.57, −0.96) 2.4/1.7 Negligible
 Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis (CD001266) 24 23 4.2 1182 1149 2.8 −0.45 (−0.96, 0.05)
MD
−0.41 (−0.97, 0.14) 8.9/9.9 Small
 Glucocorticoids for croup (CD001955) 14 13 7.1 1031 998 3.2 −0.59 (−0.83, -0.35)
SMD
−0.65 (−0.89, −0.41) 10.1/0.0 Small
 Azithromycin for acute lower respiratory tract infections (CD001954) 15 14 6.7 2496 2446 2.0 1.09 (0.64, 1.85)
RR
1.03 (0.60, 1.78) 5.5/2.5 Small
 Systemic corticosteroids for acute sinusitis (CD008115) 4 2 50.0 869 459 47.2 1.40 (1.08, 1.81)
RR
1.18 (1.05, 1.34) 15.7/60.3 Moderate
 Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis (CD000247) 6 5 16.7 1047 979 6.5 0.95 (0.59, 1.51)
RR
1.11 (0.70, 1.76) 16.8/15.2 Moderate
 Acetylcysteine and carbocysteine for acute upper and lower RTIs in paediatric patients without chronic broncho-pulmonary disease (CD003124) 3 0 100 139 0 100 −0.05 (−0.12, 0.02)
RD
NA NA Substantial
 Chinese medicinal herbs for influenza (CD004559) 2 0 100 197 0 100 1.32 (0.87, 2.00)
RR
NA NA Substantial
Infectious diseases
 Vaccines for preventing malaria (CD006198) 3 2 33.3 307 237 22.8 1.05 (0.82, 1.35)
RR
1.05 (0.82, 1.35) 0/0 Negligible
 Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhoea (CD003048) 35 34 2.9 4555 4414 3.1 −24.76 (−33.61, −15.91)
MD
−25.53 (−34.58, −16.49) 3.1/1.1 Negligible
 High first dose quinine regimen for treating severe malaria (CD003341) 3 2 33.3 144 72 50.0 0.62 (0.19, 2.04)
RR
0.43 (0.09, 2.05) 30.7/5.9 Large
 Oral versus intravenous rehydration for treating dehydration due to gastroenteritis in children (CD004390) 18 15 16.7 1811 1436 20.7 0.04 (0.01, 0.07)
RD
0.02 (0.00, 0.04) 50.0/33.3 Large
(with change in statistical significance)