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Table 2 Summary characteristics of included models evaluating surveillance strategies

From: Cost-effectiveness of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review of model-based analyses

First author Year Country Model Type HCV population Regimens evaluateda Perspective Time horizon Discount rate Cycle length Sponsor
Canavan 2013 [56] UK Markov Newly diagnosed with chronic HCV and no fibrosis • Intermittent biopsy followed by ultrasound and blood test every 6 mths
• Annual biopsy followed by liver cancer screening at 6-mth intervals once cirrhosis identified
• Replacing intermittent liver biopsy by TE with confirmation liver biopsy, followed by liver cancer screening at 6-month intervals once cirrhosis identified
• Annual TE with confirmation liver biopsy, followed by liver cancer screening at 6-mth intervals once cirrhosis identified
• Annual TE as a definitive test, followed by liver cancer screening at 6-mth intervals once cirrhosis identified
• No surveillance of fibrosis stage
UK NHS (Hospital) Lifetime
3.5%a
3 mths
Lead author funded by MRC Population Health Science Fellowship
Crossanb 2015 [54] UK Markov HBV, HCV (G1–4, with suspected fibrosis, who usually present for liver biopsy), ALD, NAFLDc • TE
• FibroTest
• ARFI
• Other invasive tests (including: DwMRI, • FibroIndex, contract-enhanced ultrasound, and Type IV collagen)
• Liver biopsy
UK NHS Lifetime
3.5%a
3 mths
UK NIHR HTA Programme
Liu 2011 [57] USA Markov Tx naïve, G1–3 • FibroTest
• FibroTest & liver biopsy
• FibroTest rule-in
• FibroTest rule-out
• Liver biopsy only (recommended practice)
• Immediate Tx
Payer Lifetime
3%a
6 mths
US NIH NIA Career development & Stanford Graduate Fellowship
  1. Abbreviations: ALD alcoholic liver disease, ARFI acoustic radiation force impulse, HBV hepatitis B virus, HCV hepatitis C virus, HTA health technology assessment, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, MRC Medical Research Council, mth(s) month(s), NAFLD non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NHS National Health Service/system, NIA National Institute of aging, NIH National Institutes of Health, NIHR National Institute for Health Research, TE transient elastography, Tx treatment, UK United Kingdom, US United States (of America
  2. Notes: aCosts and health outcomes; bModel also reported in Tsochatzis et al., 2014 [55]; c Only the HCV population met the eligibility criteria for this review
  3. Sources: Canavan 2013 [56], Crossan 2015 [54], Liu 2011 [57]; Tsochatzis 2014 [55]