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Table 1 Characteristics of the 23 included meta-analyses

From: Primary versus secondary source of data in observational studies and heterogeneity in meta-analyses of drug effects: a survey of major medical journals

Meta-analysis Variables
First author Year Journal Drug exposure Outcome
Weiss J [20] 2017 Ann Intern Med Antihypertensive drugs Harms outcomes: Cognitive impairment, quality of life, falls, fractures, syncope, functional status, hypotension, acute kidney injury, medication burden, withdrawal due to adverse events
Bally M [21] 2017 BMJ NSAIDs Myocardial infarction
Sordo L [22] 2017 BMJ Opioid substitution treatment (methadone, buprenorphine) All cause and overdose mortality
Tariq R [23] 2017 JAMA Intern Med Gastric acid suppressants Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
Maruthur NM [24] 2016 Ann Intern Med Diabetes monotherapy (thiazolidinediones, metformin, sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists) or metformin-based combinations All-cause mortality, macrovascular and microvascular outcomes, intermediate outcomes (hemoglobin A1c, body weight, systolic blood pressure, heart rate), hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal side effects, genital mycotic infections, congestive heart failure
Paul S [25] 2016 Ann Intern Med Antiviral prophylaxis Primary outcome: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) reactivation
Secondary outcomes: HBV-related hepatitis, interrupted chemotherapy, acute liver failure, mortality
Li L [26] 2016 BMJ Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors Heart failure
Hospital admissions for heart failure
Molnar AO [27] 2015 BMJ Generic immunosuppressive drugs Patient survival, allograft survival, acute rejection, adverse events, bioequivalence
Ziff OJ [28] 2015 BMJ Digoxin Primary outcome: All-cause mortality
Secondary outcomes: Cardiovascular mortality; admission to hospital for any cause, cardiovascular causes and heart failure; incident stroke, incident myocardial infarction
CGESOC [29] 2015 Lancet Hormone therapy (oestrogen, progestagen) Ovarian cancer
Bellemain- Appaix A [30] 2014 BMJ Tienopyridines (clopidogrel) Primary outcome: All-cause mortality, major bleeding
Secondary outcomes: Major cardiovascular events and myocardial infarction, stroke, urgent revascularization, stent thrombosis
Grigoriadis S [31] 2014 BMJ Antidepressants (SSRIs) Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn
Li L [32] 2014 BMJ Incretin-based treatments Pancreatitis
Kalil AC [33] 2014 JAMA Vancomycin MIC All-cause mortality
Stegeman BH [34] 2013 BMJ Combined oral contraceptives Venous thrombosis
Maneiro JR [35] 2013 JAMA Intern Med Biologic agents (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab) Influence of AABs: on efficacy in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, or other spondyloarthropathies), in hypersensitivity reactions, and on the concentration of biological drugs; effect of concomitant treatment in development of AAB
Hartling L [36] 2012 Ann Intern Med Antipsychotics Primary outcomes: Improved core symptoms of illness (positive and negative symptoms and general psychopathology), adverse events: diabetes mellitus, death, tardive dyskinesia, major metabolic syndrome
Secondary outcomes: Functional outcomes, health care system use; response, remission and relapse rates; medication adherence, health-related quality of life, other patient-oriented outcomes (e.g. patient satisfaction), other adverse events: extrapyramidal symptoms, weight gain
Hsu J [37] 2012 Ann Intern Med Antivirals (oseltamivir, zanamivir, amantadine, rimantadine) Mortality, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation and respiratory failure, duration of hospitalization, duration of signs and symptoms, time to return to normal activity, complications, critical adverse events: major psychotic disorders, encephalitis, stroke, seizure; important adverse events: pain in extremities, clonic twitching, body weakness, dermatologic changes (urticaria or rash); influenza viral shedding, emergence of antiviral resistance
Caldeira D [38] 2012 BMJ ACEIs and ARBs Incidence of pneumonia
Pneumonia related mortality
MacArthur GJ [39] 2012 BMJ Opiate substitution, methadone detoxification HIV infection among people who inject drugs
Mantha S [40] 2012 BMJ Progestin-only contaception Venous thromboembolic events
Silvain J [41] 2012 BMJ Enoxaparin, unfractioned heparin Primary outcome: Mortality, major bleeding
Secondary outcomes: Composite ischaemic end point (death or myocardial infarction), complications of myocardial infarction, minor bleeding
McKnight RF [42] 2012 Lancet Lithium Renal function, thyroid function, parathyroid function, hair disorders, skin disorders, bodyweight, teratogenicity
  1. Abbreviations: AABs antibodies against biologic agents, ACEIs, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, Ann Intern Med Annals of Internal Medicine, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, BMJ British Medical Journal, DPP-4 Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4, GLP-1 glucagon like peptide-1, JAMA Journal of the American Medical Association, MIC minimum inhibitory concentration, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, SGLT-2 sodium–glucose cotransporter 2, SSRIs selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors