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Table 3 Quantifying treatment contamination where treatment receipt was defined as binary

From: A scoping review of the problems and solutions associated with contamination in trials of complex interventions in mental health

Reference Control treatment Active intervention Measure of contamination Contamination (control participants receiving intervention)
Aveyard et al. [40] Basic behavioural support for smoking cessation Behavioural support for smoking cessation Nurse visit (1st extra);
Telephone call;
Nurse visit (2nd extra)
12/469 (3%)
12/469 (3%)
5/469 (1%)
Barton et al. [41] No treatment Mammography education (pamphlet and videotape) focusing on anxiety Patient recall of:
Bernstein et al. [42] No treatment Cognitive behavioural therapy Service Questionnaire of anxiety treatment 0/24 (0%)
Borland et al. [43] Minimal information Behavioural support Patients reporting use of extensive behavioural support 45/378 (12%)
Clarkson et al. [36] Routine care Self-efficacy education Participants reporting use of electric toothbrush 9/113 (8%)p
9/180 (5%)c
Courneya et al. [44] Group psychotherapy Group psychotherapy and exercise programme Patient-reported exercise 10/45 (22%)
Dilley et al. [45] Usual care Cognitive counselling Patient-reported receipt of counselling 45/158 (29%)
Forchuk et al. [46] Usual care Transitional discharge from hospital Patient-reported receipt of peer support and staff contact 27%
Heirich & Sieck [47] Health education Proactive follow-up counselling Patients requesting personal counselling 56%
Johnson et al. [20] Usual treatment Clinical training in dual diagnosis of psychosis and substance misuse Patients not taken on by trained case manager 19/105 (18%)
Khumalo-Sakutukwa et al. [48] Standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing HIV counselling, testing and self-management Participants seeking out treatment from intervention centres 1%
Lamers et al. [49] Usual care Nurse-led minimal psychological intervention (MPI) Patients who reported knowledge of MPI 9/178 (5%)
Lee & Gayp [37] Attention control Sleep hygiene package Patient-reported use of: Bassinet;
White noise device;
Low lighting
33/46 (72%)p
47/75 (62%)c
11/75 (14%)c
27/75 (36%)c
Merritt et al. [50] No intervention Postcards with information about depression Patients reporting having seen the postcards 7/78 (1%)
Moadel et al. [51] Standard care Smoking cessation group support and encouragement Patients reporting discussion of active intervention patients;
Patients reporting familiarity with program’s strategies
Mohr et al. [52] Treatment as usual Cognitive behavioural therapy Patients who had contact with non-study therapist 18/44 (41%)
Phillips et al. [53] Routine public health practice Community engagement in healthy eating Participants reporting participation in intervention programme 1%
Saitz et al. [54] Usual care Chronic care management (multidisciplinary care coordination; motivational therapy; counselling) Patients who received a session of motivational enhancement therapy 9/281 (3%)
Shemilt et al. [55] No funding for breakfast club Funding for school-based breakfast club School pupils with school breakfast club 77%
Stewart-Brown et al. [56] No intervention Incredible Years (parenting techniques) training Participants attending community-based parenting programme 4/44 (9%)
Waghorn et al. [57] Enhanced routine mental health case management Supported employment and specialist illness management Patients opting to transfer to intervention after 6 months 28/102 (27%)
Walpole et al. [58] Social skills training Motivational interviewing (MI) Patients whose treatment was MI adherent 37%
Wells et al. [59] Usual care Quality improvement therapy (CBT) and medications (assessment and education) Receipt of speciality counselling within 6 months 13%
  1. pUsing participant-level treatment allocation
  2. cUsing cluster-level treatment allocation