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Table 1 Study design characteristics to support enrollment and retention of underrepresented minorities

From: Strategies for recruitment and retention of underrepresented populations with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for a clinical trial

Area of focus Design Characteristic
Community interaction Conducting study in safety net community clinics [29,30,31]
Working with community-based patient partners [13, 14, 18, 29, 32]
Partnering with community clinics [29, 30, 32]
Meeting with patients and stakeholders over course of study (study advisory board) [33,34,35,36,37,38]
Clinic interaction Creating value for clinical care (e.g., providing test results to primary care clinicians) [13, 30, 33]
Providing education to clinic staff [33]
Payments to clinics [40]
Basing study activities at community clinics [37, 38, 40,41,42,43]
Patient interaction Providing information to patient about their condition [13]
Bilingual staff and study materials [14, 18, 34]
Training research staff in outreach, recruitment and retention, especially for minority and underserved populations [45]
Recruitment Face to face recruitment and enrollment when possible [8, 14]
Minimal inclusion/exclusion criteria [19]
Not requiring patient to endorse diagnosis of condition [14, 27]
Retention Meeting with patient at home or close to where patient lived [14, 18]
Continuity of personal relationship with member of study team [8, 18, 46]
Maintaining contact at 3 month intervals [14, 44]
Both recruitment and retention Flexibility in rescheduling meeting times [14, 18]
Providing compensation to patients [8, 13, 14, 27, 44]