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Table 5 Performance measures of various methods for handling 45% missingness in recurrences for individuals treated with artemether-lumefantrine

From: Dealing with indeterminate outcomes in antimalarial drug efficacy trials: a comparison between complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting

Full data Kaplan-Meier estimate of day 28 cure (SE) = 0.960 (0.1559)
 Complete case analysisMIIPWIPW-E
Mechanism 1
 Bias0.0159 (0.0165)-0.0026 (0.0079)0.0002 (0.0075)0.0039 (0.0097)
 Relative bias1.65 %-0.27 %0.02 %0.41 %
 Model based SE0.2152 (0.0007)0.2001 (0.0008)0.2097 (0.0009)0.2536 (0.0014)
 Empirical SE0.2032 (0.0045)0.1854 (0.0041)0.2015 (0.0045)0.2582 (0.0058)
 Coverage13.4 % (1.1)94.4 % (0.7)95.4 % (0.7)85.1 % (1.1)
 RMSE a0.5732 (0.0079)0.1914 (0.0014)0.2028 (0.0023)0.2918 (0.0044)
Mechanism 2a (Weak scenario)
 Bias0.0163 (0.0173)-0.0022 (0.0084)0.0001 (0.0077)0.0039 (0.0104)
 Relative bias1.70 %-0.23 %0.01 %0.41 %
 Model based SE0.2176 (0.0008)0.2041 (0.0008)0.2123 (0.0009)0.2594 (0.0017)
 Empirical SE0.2053 (0.0046)0.1901 (0.0044)0.2028 (0.0046)0.268 (0.0062)
 Coverage12.3 % (1.0)95.5 % (0.7)95.7 % (0.6)83.7 % (1.2)
 RMSE a0.5907 (0.0085)0.1938 (0.0018)0.2039 (0.0024)0.3019 (0.0051)
Mechanism 2b (Strong scenario)
 Bias0.0167 (0.0169)-0.0026 (0.008)0.0001 (0.0076)0.004 (0.0102)
 Relative bias1.74 %-0.27 %0.01 %0.41 %
 Model based SE0.2200 (0.0008)0.2060 (0.0008)0.2151 (0.0009)0.2659 (0.0016)
 Empirical SE0.2060 (0.0046)0.1978 (0.0043)0.2051 (0.0045)0.2772 (0.006)
 Coverage10.1 % (1.0)94.5 % (0.7)95.7 % (0.6)83.1 % (1.2)
 RMSE a0.6085 (0.0082)0.2031 (0.0016)0.2063 (0.0023)0.3119 (0.0046)
  1. MI Multiple Imputation, IPW Inverse Probability Weighting, IPW-E Inverse Probability Weighting with recurrence status excluded; SE= Standard Error; RMSE= Root Mean Squared Error; K-M = Kaplan-Meier estimates
  2. a=Monte Carlo error for the RMSE presented on mean squared error scale
  3. Monte Carlo Standard Errors shown in parentheses