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Table 5 Performance measures of various methods for handling 45% missingness in recurrences for individuals treated with artemether-lumefantrine

From: Dealing with indeterminate outcomes in antimalarial drug efficacy trials: a comparison between complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting

Full data Kaplan-Meier estimate of day 28 cure (SE) = 0.960 (0.1559)
  Complete case analysis MI IPW IPW-E
Mechanism 1
 Bias 0.0159 (0.0165) -0.0026 (0.0079) 0.0002 (0.0075) 0.0039 (0.0097)
 Relative bias 1.65 % -0.27 % 0.02 % 0.41 %
 Model based SE 0.2152 (0.0007) 0.2001 (0.0008) 0.2097 (0.0009) 0.2536 (0.0014)
 Empirical SE 0.2032 (0.0045) 0.1854 (0.0041) 0.2015 (0.0045) 0.2582 (0.0058)
 Coverage 13.4 % (1.1) 94.4 % (0.7) 95.4 % (0.7) 85.1 % (1.1)
 RMSE a 0.5732 (0.0079) 0.1914 (0.0014) 0.2028 (0.0023) 0.2918 (0.0044)
Mechanism 2a (Weak scenario)
 Bias 0.0163 (0.0173) -0.0022 (0.0084) 0.0001 (0.0077) 0.0039 (0.0104)
 Relative bias 1.70 % -0.23 % 0.01 % 0.41 %
 Model based SE 0.2176 (0.0008) 0.2041 (0.0008) 0.2123 (0.0009) 0.2594 (0.0017)
 Empirical SE 0.2053 (0.0046) 0.1901 (0.0044) 0.2028 (0.0046) 0.268 (0.0062)
 Coverage 12.3 % (1.0) 95.5 % (0.7) 95.7 % (0.6) 83.7 % (1.2)
 RMSE a 0.5907 (0.0085) 0.1938 (0.0018) 0.2039 (0.0024) 0.3019 (0.0051)
Mechanism 2b (Strong scenario)
 Bias 0.0167 (0.0169) -0.0026 (0.008) 0.0001 (0.0076) 0.004 (0.0102)
 Relative bias 1.74 % -0.27 % 0.01 % 0.41 %
 Model based SE 0.2200 (0.0008) 0.2060 (0.0008) 0.2151 (0.0009) 0.2659 (0.0016)
 Empirical SE 0.2060 (0.0046) 0.1978 (0.0043) 0.2051 (0.0045) 0.2772 (0.006)
 Coverage 10.1 % (1.0) 94.5 % (0.7) 95.7 % (0.6) 83.1 % (1.2)
 RMSE a 0.6085 (0.0082) 0.2031 (0.0016) 0.2063 (0.0023) 0.3119 (0.0046)
  1. MI Multiple Imputation, IPW Inverse Probability Weighting, IPW-E Inverse Probability Weighting with recurrence status excluded; SE= Standard Error; RMSE= Root Mean Squared Error; K-M = Kaplan-Meier estimates
  2. a=Monte Carlo error for the RMSE presented on mean squared error scale
  3. Monte Carlo Standard Errors shown in parentheses