Skip to main content

Table 1 P-values and binary S-values, with corresponding maximum-likelihood ratios (MLR) and deviance (likelihood-ratio) statistics for a simple test hypothesis H under background assumptions A

From: Semantic and cognitive tools to aid statistical science: replace confidence and significance by compatibility and surprise

P-value p (compatibility of H with data given A) S-value s = −log2(p) (information against H given A in bits) Maximum-likelihood ratio against H given A Deviance statistic 2ln(MLR)
0.99 0.014 1.00 0.00016
0.90 0.15 1.01 0.016
0.50 1.00 1.26 0.45
0.25 2.00 1.94 1.32
0.10 3.32 3.87 2.71
0.05 4.32 6.83 3.84
0.025 5.32 12.3 5.02
0.01 6.64 27.6 6.63
0.005 7.64 51.4 7.88
0.0001 13.3 1935 15.1
5 sigmaa (~ 2.9 in 10 million) 21.7 5.2 × 105 26.3
1 in 100 million (GWAS) 26.6 1.4 × 107 32.8
6 sigmaa (~ 1 in a billion) 29.9 1.3 × 108 37.4
  1. a5 and 6 sigma cutoffs are the upper standard-normal tail probabilities at 5 and 6 standard deviations above the mean [51]