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Table 2 Semi-quantitative risk schedule

From: A risk assessment tool for resumption of research activities during the COVID-19 pandemic for field trials in low resource settings

Scale Descriptor Definition Example (see Additional file 1 for full descriptions)
Level 1 Minimal Risk Participant and staff are not in close contact indoors at anytime. No aerosolizing procedures. No processing of biologic samples. Data collection by phone, in-person survey administration outdoors, LPG fuel delivery
Level 2 Moderate Risk Participant and staff may be in close contact but only for a short period of time. Biologic materials may be processed in the lab. No aerosolizing procedures performed. Brachial artery reactivity testing, carotid artery reactivity testing, blood pressure measurement, fetal ultrasound, personal exposure assessment in adults, blood collection in adults, urine collection in adults
Level 3 High Risk Participant and staff may be in close contact for a prolonged period of time or an aerosolizing procedure is occuring (e.g. child crying during length measurement) Anthropometry, collection of blood in children, screening children for pneumonia, lung ultrasound, buccal scrape, nasal brush
Level 4 Unacceptable Risk for Research Participant and staff may be in close contact with patient samples for a prolonged period of time and an aerosolizing procedure is occuring in a manner that staff and participants can not be safely protected. No HAPIN procedures were deemed Level 4; however, the following procedures would be deemed Level 4 in our framework: bronchoscopy, induced sputum, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)