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Table 2 Estimated Hazard Ratios Modeling Time to Death (with time-fixed study setting variable), Time to First Hospitalization (with time-fixed study setting variable), and Time to First Hospitalization (with time-varying study setting variable)

From: Are morbidity and mortality estimates from randomized controlled trials externally valid? A comparison of outcomes among infants enrolled into an RCT or a cohort study in Botswana

  Time-Fixed:
Time to Death
HR (95% CI)
Time-Fixed:
Time to First Hospitalization
HR (95% CI)
Time-Varying:
Time to First Hospitalization
HR (95% CI)
Study Setting
(RCT vs. Cohort Study)
Non-Time-Varying
1.28
(0.76, 2.13)
0.72
(0.58,0.89)
N/A
Study Setting
(RCT vs. Cohort Study)
Time-Varying
N/A N/A 0.42
(0.31, 0.58)
Sex (Male vs. Female) 0.92
(0.59,1.45
1.25
(1.02,1.54)
1.25
(1.02, 1.54)
Site Type
(Non-Urban vs. Urban)
0.79
(0.49,1.26)
1.04
(0.84,1.28)
1.05
(0.85, 1.30
SES Score
(Increasing SES Status)
0.84
(0.70,1.01)
0.94
(0.86,1.02)
0.94
(0.87, 1.02)
Breastfeeding Strategy (Exclusively Formula Fed vs. Ever Breastfed) 1.19
(0.65,2.18)
1.37
(1.03,1.83)
1.34
(1.01, 1.79)
Pregnancy ARV Strategy
(Reference: None)
Pregnancy ARV Strategy
(ZDV Only)
0.86
(0.25,2.98)
1.00
(0.56,1.77)
1.03
(0.58, 1.83)
Pregnancy ARV Strategy
(3-drug ART)
0.60
(0.18,1.99)
0.76
(0.44,1.32)
0.82
(0.47, 1.41)
Birthweight Status
(Not Low-Birthweight vs
Low-Birthweight)
0.58
(0.34,0.97)
1.01
(0.76,1.33)
1.00
(0.76, 1.33)