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Table 3 Descriptive model selection frequencies (DMSF) for investigated simulation scenarios

From: Statistical model building: Background “knowledge” based on inappropriate preselection causes misspecification

Scenario S(*)_a: Univariable selection, S(*)_b: Univariable selection, S(*)_c: Backward elimination,
  αin=0.05 αin=0.2 AIC
S1_(*) R1: 0.271 R1: 0.648 R1: 1
  R2: 0.028 R2: 0.212 R2: 0.997
  R3: 0.001 R3: 0.024 R3: 0.894
S2_(*) R1: 0.448 R1: 0.805 R1: 1
  R2: 0.086 R2: 0.382 R2: 1
  R3: 0.006 R3: 0.069 R3: 0.999
S3_(*) R1: 0.912 R1: 0.992 R1: 1
  R2: 0.581 R2: 0.889 R2: 1
  R3: 0.170 R3: 0.505 R3: 1
S4_(*) R1: 0.340 R1: 0.711 R1: 1
  R2: 0.044 R2: 0.255 R2: 0.999
  R3: 0.001 R3: 0.037 R3: 0.929
S5_(*) R1: 0.401 R1: 0.764 R1: 1
  R2: 0.064 R2: 0.323 R2: 1
  R3: 0.003 R3: 0.054 R3: 0.966
S6_(*) R1: 0.678 R1: 0.917 R1: 1
  R2: 0.161 R2: 0.489 R2: 1
  R3: 0.009 R3: 0.097 R3: 0.959
S7_(*) R1: 0.644 R1: 0.899 R1: 1
  R2: 0.107 R2: 0.419 R2: 0.998
  R3: 0.005 R3: 0.072 R3: 0.929
S8_(*) R1: 0.705 R1: 0.933 R1: 1
  R2: 0.200 R2: 0.557 R2: 1
  R3: 0.019 R3: 0.140 R3: 1
S9_(*) R1: 0.834 R1: 0.970 R1: 1
  R2: 0.362 R2: 0.729 R2: 1
  R3: 0.029 R3: 0.184 R3: 0.965
S10_(*) R1: 0.840 R1: 0.977 R1: 1
  R2: 0.403 R2: 0.774 R2: 1
  R3: 0.052 R3: 0.267 R3: 1
  1. R1 Rule 1 (one out of three preceding studies identifies predictor); R2 Rule 2 (Two out of three preceding studies identify predictor); R3 Rule 3 (all three preceding studies identify predictor)