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Table 2 Modifiable risk factors

From: Analytical challenges in estimating the effect of exposures that are bounded by follow-up time: experiences from the Blood Stream Infection—Focus on Outcomes study

Risk factor Definition Detail
Ward specialitya Medicine, Major surgery, Minor surgery, Critical care or Other Observed each day, days 0–7
Staffing per 10 beds (nursing and care staff) Average number of staff (NHS-employed nurses + agency nurses + healthcare assistants) over the 3 shifts, per 10 beds Observed each day, days 0–7
Ward activity per 10 beds Number of patients admitted to ward + number of patients discharged from ward, per 10 beds Observed each day, days 0–7
Central venous line Central line present, yes or no Determinedb each day, days 0–28
Peripheral vascular line Peripheral line present, yes or no Determinedb each day, days 0–28
Urinary catheter Urinary catheter present, yes or no Determinedb each day, days 0–28
Ward movement: to critical care Cumulative count of moves from a critical care ward to a medical or surgical ward Total number of relevant ward moves up until that day, for days 0–7
Ward movement: from critical care Cumulative count of moves from a critical care ward to a medical or surgical ward Total number of relevant ward moves up until that day, for days 0–7
Ward movement: within speciality Cumulative count of ward moves within the same speciality (surgery, medicine or critical care) Total number of relevant ward movements up until that day, for days 0–7
Ward movement: from medicine to surgery Cumulative count of moves from a medical to a surgical ward Total number of relevant ward movements up until that day, for days 0–7
Ward movement: from surgery to medicine Cumulative count of moves from a surgical to a medical ward Total number of relevant ward movements up until that day, for days 0–7
Time to initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy Cumulative count of days before first receipt of appropriate antimicrobial therapy Total number of days before first appropriate therapy up until that day, for days 0–28
  1. a For statistical modelling purposes, ward specialities were grouped as medicine, surgery (minor surgery + major surgery) and critical care; ward specialities in the “Other” category were included in either surgery (obstetrics & gynaecology) or medicine (A&E, emergency assessment, fracture clinics and related units, imaging, diagnostics and telemetry, and other services not already classified as medical, surgical or HDU/ITU). b Determined from presence/absence of line/catheter on day 0 and date of removal