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Table 1 Experimental/statistical methods to evaluate the EV of RCTs

From: Identification of tools used to assess the external validity of randomized controlled trials in reviews: a systematic review of measurement properties

1. Comparing differences of characteristics and/or NNT analysis from not-enrolled eligible patients with enrolled patients [4952]
2. Conduction of observational studies to assess the “real world” applicability of RCTs [20, 53, 54]
3. Meta-analysis of patient characteristics data from RCTs [55, 56]
4. Comparison of data from RCTs with data from health record database and/or other epidemiological data:
a) retrospectively [5559]
b) simulation-based (a priori and retrospective) [60, 61]
5. Review of exclusion criteria in RCTs which would limit the EV [62]
  1. Abbreviations: EV external validity, NNT numbers needed to treat, RCT randomized controlled trial
  2. For non-experimental methods, please refer to Table 2