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  1. Content type: Research article

    In most case control studies the hardest decision is the choice of the control group, as in the ideal control group the proportion exposed is the same as in the population that produced the cases.

    Authors: Odimariles MS Dantas, Ricardo AA Ximenes, Maria de Fatima PM de Albuquerque, Ulisses R Montarroyos, Wayner V de Souza, Patrícia Varejão and Laura C Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:11

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Our objective was to develop an instrument to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews, building upon previous tools, empirical evidence and expert consensus.

    Authors: Beverley J Shea, Jeremy M Grimshaw, George A Wells, Maarten Boers, Neil Andersson, Candyce Hamel, Ashley C Porter, Peter Tugwell, David Moher and Lex M Bouter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:10

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Little is known about the response mechanisms among survivors of disasters. We studied the selective attrition and possible bias in a longitudinal study among survivors of a fireworks disaster.

    Authors: Bellis van den Berg, Peter van der Velden, Rebecca Stellato and Linda Grievink

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:8

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  4. Content type: Debate

    To explore the strengths and weaknesses of conventional biomedical research strategies and methods as applied to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and to suggest a new research framework for assess...

    Authors: Vinjar Fønnebø, Sameline Grimsgaard, Harald Walach, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Arne Johan Norheim, Hugh MacPherson, George Lewith, Laila Launsø, Mary Koithan, Torkel Falkenberg, Heather Boon and Mikel Aickin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:7

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Often in survey research, subsets of the population invited to complete the survey do not respond in a timely manner and valuable resources are expended in recontact efforts. Various methods of improving respo...

    Authors: Jean-Paul Chretien, Laura K Chu, Tyler C Smith, Besa Smith and Margaret AK Ryan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:6

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Meta-analysis handles randomized trials with no outcome events in both treatment and control arms inconsistently, including them when risk difference (RD) is the effect measure but excluding them when relative...

    Authors: Jan O Friedrich, Neill KJ Adhikari and Joseph Beyene

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:5

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The inclusion of qualitative studies in systematic reviews poses methodological challenges. This paper presents worked examples of two methods of data synthesis (textual narrative and thematic), used in relati...

    Authors: Patricia J Lucas, Janis Baird, Lisa Arai, Catherine Law and Helen M Roberts

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:4

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  8. Content type: Research article

    When multiple endpoints are of interest in evidence synthesis, a multivariate meta-analysis can jointly synthesise those endpoints and utilise their correlation. A multivariate random-effects meta-analysis mus...

    Authors: Richard D Riley, Keith R Abrams, Alexander J Sutton, Paul C Lambert and John R Thompson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:3

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  9. Content type: Study protocol

    This paper describes the study protocol, the recruitment, and base-line data for evaluating the success of randomisation of the PRO-AGE (PRevention in Older people – Assessment in GEneralists' practices) project.

    Authors: Andreas E Stuck, Kalpa Kharicha, Ulrike Dapp, Jennifer Anders, Wolfgang von Renteln-Kruse, Hans Peter Meier-Baumgartner, Steve Iliffe, Danielle Harari, Martin D Bachmann, Matthias Egger, Gerhard Gillmann, John C Beck and Cameron G Swift

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:2

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been te...

    Authors: Andreas E Stuck, Kalpa Kharicha, Ulrike Dapp, Jennifer Anders, Wolfgang von Renteln-Kruse, Hans Peter Meier-Baumgartner, Danielle Harari, Cameron G Swift, Katja Ivanova, Matthias Egger, Gerhard Gillmann, Jerilyn Higa, John C Beck and Steve Iliffe

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:1

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Reasons for attrition in studies vary, but may be a major concern in long-term studies if those who drop out differ systematically from those who continue to participate. Factors associated with dropout were e...

    Authors: Naomi M Gades, Debra J Jacobson, Michaela E McGree, Michael M Lieber, Rosebud O Roberts, Cynthia J Girman and Steven J Jacobsen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:58

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Missing data present a challenge to many research projects. The problem is often pronounced in studies utilizing self-report scales, and literature addressing different strategies for dealing with missing data...

    Authors: Fiona M Shrive, Heather Stuart, Hude Quan and William A Ghali

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:57

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  13. Content type: Correspondence

    It is often stated that external validity is not sufficiently considered in the assessment of clinical studies. Although tools for its evaluation have been established, there is a lack of awareness of their si...

    Authors: Gudrun Bornhöft, Stefanie Maxion-Bergemann, Ursula Wolf, Gunver S Kienle, Andreas Michalsen, Horst C Vollmar, Simon Gilbertson and Peter F Matthiessen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:56

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside sys...

    Authors: Ian Shemilt, Miranda Mugford, Michael Drummond, Eric Eisenstein, Jacqueline Mallender, David McDaid, Luke Vale and Damian Walker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:55

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Stepped wedge randomised trial designs involve sequential roll-out of an intervention to participants (individuals or clusters) over a number of time periods. By the end of the study, all participants will hav...

    Authors: Celia A Brown and Richard J Lilford

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:54

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Providers use risk-adjustment systems to help manage healthcare costs. Typically, ordinary least squares (OLS) models on either untransformed or log-transformed cost are used. We examine the predictive ability...

    Authors: Maria Montez-Rath, Cindy L Christiansen, Susan L Ettner, Susan Loveland and Amy K Rosen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:53

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  17. Content type: Debate

    Methods for describing one's confidence in the available evidence are useful for end-users of evidence reviews. Analysts inevitably make judgments about the quality, quantity consistency, robustness, and magni...

    Authors: Jonathan R Treadwell, Stephen J Tregear, James T Reston and Charles M Turkelson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:52

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  18. Content type: Software

    Meta-analysis has become a well-known method for synthesis of quantitative data from previously conducted research in applied health sciences. So far, meta-analysis has been particularly useful in evaluating a...

    Authors: Leon Bax, Ly-Mee Yu, Noriaki Ikeda, Harukazu Tsuruta and Karel GM Moons

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:50

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  19. Content type: Research article

    In this paper we compare the results in an analysis of determinants of caregivers' health derived from two approaches, a structural equation model and a log-linear model, using the same data set.

    Authors: Bin Zhu, Stephen D Walter, Peter L Rosenbaum, Dianne J Russell and Parminder Raina

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:49

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The interpretation of the results of active-control trials regarding the efficacy and safety of a new drug is important for drug registration and following clinical use. It has been suggested that non-inferior...

    Authors: Jean-Jacques Parienti, Renaud Verdon and Véronique Massari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:46

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  21. Content type: Correspondence

    A recent paper found that terminal digits of statistical values in Nature deviated significantly from an equiprobable distribution, indicating errors or inconsistencies in rounding. This finding, as well as th...

    Authors: Monwhea Jeng

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:45

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  22. Content type: Correspondence

    The Levels of Evidence Rating System is widely believed to categorize studies by quality, with Level I studies representing the highest quality evidence. We aimed to determine the reporting quality of Randomis...

    Authors: Rudolf W Poolman, Peter AA Struijs, Rover Krips, Inger N Sierevelt, Kristina H Lutz and Mohit Bhandari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:44

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  23. Content type: Research article

    A trial was commissioned to evaluate the effectiveness of larval therapy to debride and heal sloughy and necrotic venous leg ulcers. Larval therapy in the trial was to be delivered in either loose or bagged fo...

    Authors: ES Petherick, S O'Meara, K Spilsbury, CP Iglesias, EA Nelson and DJ Torgerson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:43

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  24. Content type: Commentary

    Citation counts are often regarded as a measure of the utilization and contribution of published articles. The objective of this study is to assess whether statistical reporting and statistical errors in the a...

    Authors: Pentti Nieminen, James Carpenter, Gerta Rucker and Martin Schumacher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:42

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Disease specific mortality is often used as outcome rather than total mortality in clinical trials. This approach assumes that the classification of cause of death is unbiased. We explored whether use of funga...

    Authors: Anne K Due, Helle K Johansen and Peter C Gøtzsche

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:40

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  26. Content type: Study protocol

    Home ultraviolet B (UVB) treatment is a much-debated treatment, especially with regard to effectiveness, safety and side effects. However, it is increasingly being prescribed, especially in the Netherlands. De...

    Authors: Mayke BG Koek, Erik Buskens, Paul HA Steegmans, Huib van Weelden, Carla AFM Bruijnzeel-Koomen and Vigfús Sigurdsson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:39

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Mathematical models are widely used for studying the dynamic of infectious agents such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). Most often, model parameters are estimated using standard least-square procedures for each ind...

    Authors: Rodolphe Thiébaut, Jérémie Guedj, Hélène Jacqmin-Gadda, Geneviève Chêne, Pascale Trimoulet, Didier Neau and Daniel Commenges

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:38

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is the framework developed by WHO to describe functioning and disability at both the individual and population levels.

    Authors: Alarcos Cieza, Szilvia Geyh, Somnath Chatterji, Nenad Kostanjsek, Bedirhan T Üstün and Gerold Stucki

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:36

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  29. Content type: Technical advance

    Conventional systematic review techniques have limitations when the aim of a review is to construct a critical analysis of a complex body of literature. This article offers a reflexive account of an attempt to...

    Authors: Mary Dixon-Woods, Debbie Cavers, Shona Agarwal, Ellen Annandale, Antony Arthur, Janet Harvey, Ron Hsu, Savita Katbamna, Richard Olsen, Lucy Smith, Richard Riley and Alex J Sutton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:35

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Search filters or hedges play an important role in evidence-based medicine but their development depends on the availability of a "gold standard" – a reference standard against which to establish the performan...

    Authors: Margaret Sampson, Li Zhang, Andra Morrison, Nicholas J Barrowman, Tammy J Clifford, Robert W Platt, Terry P Klassen and David Moher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:33

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Standard effect measures such as risk difference and attributable risk are frequently used in epidemiological studies and public health research to describe the effect of exposures. Recently, so-called impact ...

    Authors: Mandy Hildebrandt, Ralf Bender, Ulrich Gehrmann and Maria Blettner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:32

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  32. Content type: Software

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of test accuracy studies are increasingly being recognised as central in guiding clinical practice. However, there is currently no dedicated and comprehensive software for ...

    Authors: Javier Zamora, Victor Abraira, Alfonso Muriel, Khalid Khan and Arri Coomarasamy

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:31

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  33. Content type: Correspondence

    In order to reduce systematic errors (such as language bias) and increase the precision of the summary treatment effect estimate, a comprehensive identification of randomised controlled trials (RCT), irrespect...

    Authors: Daniel Galandi, Guido Schwarzer and Gerd Antes

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:30

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  34. Content type: Debate

    The reasoning behind evaluating medical interventions is that a hierarchy of methods exists which successively produce improved and therefore more rigorous evidence based medicine upon which to make clinical d...

    Authors: Harald Walach, Torkel Falkenberg, Vinjar Fønnebø, George Lewith and Wayne B Jonas

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:29

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The UK Medical Research Council has proposed that complex interventions should be tested in exploratory trials prior to a full-scale trial so as to better define the intervention and test the feasibility of co...

    Authors: Shaun Treweek and Frank Sullivan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:28

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Systematic reviews (SRs) must be of high quality. The purpose of our research was to compare the methodological and reporting quality of original versus updated Cochrane SRs to determine whether updating had i...

    Authors: Beverley Shea, Maarten Boers, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Candyce Hamel and Lex M Bouter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:27

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  37. Content type: Research article

    In order to better understand the similarities and differences in the motor behaviour of different groups of patients, their scores on the Motor Examination section of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Sc...

    Authors: Pieter M Kroonenberg, Frans J Oort, Glenn T Stebbins, Sue E Leurgans, Esther Cubo and Christopher G Goetz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:26

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  38. Content type: Research article

    In this paper we propose the use of the within-subject coefficient of variation as an index of a measurement's reliability. For continuous variables and based on its maximum likelihood estimation we derive a v...

    Authors: Mohamed M Shoukri, Nasser Elkum and Stephen D Walter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:24

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Proper estimation of sample size requirements for cluster-based studies requires estimates of the intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for the variables of interest.

    Authors: Benjamin Littenberg and Charles D MacLean

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:20

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