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  1. In epidemiological studies, subjects are often followed for a period during which study outcomes are measured at selected time points, such as by diagnostic testing performed on biological samples collected at...

    Authors: Xiangrong Kong, Kellie J Archer, Lawrence H Moulton, Ronald H Gray and Mei-Cheng Wang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:40

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Infectious intestinal disease (IID), usually presenting as diarrhoea and vomiting, is frequently preventable. Though often mild and self-limiting, its commonness makes IID an important public health problem. I...

    Authors: Sarah J O'Brien, Greta Rait, Paul R Hunter, James J Gray, Frederick J Bolton, David S Tompkins, Jim McLauchlin, Louise H Letley, Goutam K Adak, John M Cowden, Meirion R Evans, Keith R Neal, Gillian E Smith, Brian Smyth, Clarence C Tam and Laura C Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:39

    Content type: Study protocol

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  3. Trials frequently encounter difficulties in recruitment, but evidence on effective recruitment methods in primary care is sparse. A robust test of recruitment methods involves comparing alternative methods usi...

    Authors: Jonathan Graffy, Peter Bower, Elaine Ward, Paul Wallace, Brendan Delaney, Ann-Louise Kinmonth, David Collier and Julia Miller

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:38

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The use of structural equation modeling and latent variables remains uncommon in epidemiology despite its potential usefulness. The latter was illustrated by studying cross-sectional and longitudinal relations...

    Authors: Michel Chavance, Sylvie Escolano, Monique Romon, Arnaud Basdevant, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain and Marie Aline Charles

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:37

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Although aging is accompanied by diminished functioning, many elderly individuals preserve a sense of well-being. While the concept of "successful aging" has been popular for many decades, little is known abou...

    Authors: Maria E Lacruz, Rebecca T Emeny, Horst Bickel, Barbara Cramer, Alexander Kurz, Martin Bidlingmaier, Dorothea Huber, Günther Klug, Annette Peters and Karl H Ladwig

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:36

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) research patients are usually recruited from clinical practice, memory clinics or nursing homes. Lack of standardised inclusion and diagnostic criteria is a major concern in current...

    Authors: Fred Andersen, Torgeir A Engstad, Bjørn Straume, Matti Viitanen, Dag S Halvorsen, Samuel Hykkerud and Kjell Sjøbrend

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:35

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The systematic review (SR) lies at the core of evidence-based medicine. While it may appear that the SR provides a reliable summary of existing evidence, standards of SR conduct differ. The objective of this r...

    Authors: Laura J Rosen, Michal Ben Noach and Elliot Rosenberg

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:34

    Content type: Correspondence

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  8. Survival analysis methods such as the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression (Cox regression) are commonly used to analyze data from randomized withdrawal studies in patien...

    Authors: Ichiro Arano, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Toshimitsu Hamasaki and Yuko Ohno

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:33

    Content type: Technical advance

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  9. In an agreement assay, it is of interest to evaluate the degree of agreement between the different methods (devices, instruments or observers) used to measure the same characteristic. We propose in this study ...

    Authors: Geòrgia Escaramís, Carlos Ascaso and Josep L Carrasco

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:31

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The systematic collection of high-quality mortality data is a prerequisite in designing relevant drowning prevention programmes. This descriptive study aimed to assess the quality (i.e., level of specificity) ...

    Authors: Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Philippe Lunetta and Sue Walker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:30

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons ...

    Authors: Eulalia K Kahwa, Novie O Younger, Yvonne B Wint, Norman K Waldron, Hermi H Hewitt, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Kay A Bailey, Nancy C Edwards, Laurel R Talabere and Karen N Lewis-Bell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:29

    Content type: Study protocol

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  12. In recent years, electronic diaries are increasingly used in medical research and practice to investigate patients' processes and fluctuations in symptoms over time. To model dynamic dependence structures and ...

    Authors: Beate Wild, Michael Eichler, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Mechthild Hartmann, Stephan Zipfel and Wolfgang Herzog

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:28

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Traditional methods for analyzing clinical and epidemiological cohort study data have been focused on the first occurrence of a health outcome. However, in many situations, recurrent event data are frequently ...

    Authors: Jisheng Cui, Andrew Forbes, Adrienne Kirby, Ian Marschner, John Simes, David Hunt, Malcolm West and Andrew Tonkin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:27

    Content type: Research article

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  14. There is little empirical evidence regarding the generalisability of relative risk estimates from studies which have relatively low response rates or are of limited representativeness. The aim of this study wa...

    Authors: Nicole M Mealing, Emily Banks, Louisa R Jorm, David G Steel, Mark S Clements and Kris D Rogers

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:26

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment has been a public health challenge associated with the treatment of HIV. Although different adherence-supporting interventions have been reported, their long term fea...

    Authors: Ayesha De Costa, Anita Shet, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Per Ashorn, Bo Eriksson, Lennart Bogg and Vinod K Diwan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:25

    Content type: Study protocol

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  16. Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO) are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT) based on the ob...

    Authors: Véronique Sébille, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Tanguy Le Néel, Gildas Kubis, François Boyer, Francis Guillemin and Bruno Falissard

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:24

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The COSMIN checklist (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) was developed in an international Delphi study to evaluate the methodological quality of studies on m...

    Authors: Lidwine B Mokkink, Caroline B Terwee, Dirk L Knol, Paul W Stratford, Jordi Alonso, Donald L Patrick, Lex M Bouter and Henrica CW de Vet

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:22

    Content type: Correspondence

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  18. P values are the most commonly used tool to measure evidence against a hypothesis. Several attempts have been made to transform P values to minimum Bayes factors and minimum posterior probabilities of the hypoth...

    Authors: Leonhard Held

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:21

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The Cox model relies on the proportional hazards (PH) assumption, implying that the factors investigated have a constant impact on the hazard - or risk - over time. We emphasize the importance of this assumpti...

    Authors: Carine A Bellera, Gaëtan MacGrogan, Marc Debled, Christine Tunon de Lara, Véronique Brouste and Simone Mathoulin-Pélissier

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:20

    Content type: Research article

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  20. This article describes the data mining analysis of a clinical exposure study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 nonsmokers. The analysis focused on developing models for four biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH): w...

    Authors: John H Warner, Qiwei Liang, Mohamadi Sarkar, Paul E Mendes and Hans J Roethig

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:19

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted t...

    Authors: Laurent Coudeville, Fabrice Bailleux, Benjamin Riche, Françoise Megas, Philippe Andre and René Ecochard

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:18

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The success of a human intervention trial depends upon the ability to recruit eligible volunteers. Many trials fail because of unrealistic recruitment targets and flawed recruitment strategies. In order to pre...

    Authors: Sarah E Forster, Laura Jones, John M Saxton, Daniel J Flower, Gemma Foulds, Hilary J Powers, Stuart G Parker, A Graham Pockley and Elizabeth A Williams

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:17

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Linear mixed effects models (LMMs) are a common approach for analyzing longitudinal data in a variety of settings. Although LMMs may be applied to complex data structures, such as settings where mediators are ...

    Authors: Emily A Blood, Howard Cabral, Timothy Heeren and Debbie M Cheng

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:16

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique methodological and ethical challenges. Researchers conducting systematic reviews of CRTs (e.g., addressing methodological or ethical issues) require efficient el...

    Authors: Monica Taljaard, Jessie McGowan, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Jamie C Brehaut, Andrew McRae, Martin P Eccles and Allan Donner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:15

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of...

    Authors: Markus Kalisch, Bernd AG Fellinghauer, Eva Grill, Marloes H Maathuis, Ulrich Mansmann, Peter Bühlmann and Gerold Stucki

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:14

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect...

    Authors: Linn Gjersing, John RM Caplehorn and Thomas Clausen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:13

    Content type: Research article

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  27. For the purposes of our research programme we needed a simple, reliable and validated method for allowing choice of a color in response to a series of questions. On reviewing the literature no such instrument ...

    Authors: Helen R Carruthers, Julie Morris, Nicholas Tarrier and Peter J Whorwell

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:12

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Experts recommend formulating a structured research question to guide the research design. However, the basis for this recommendation has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine if a ...

    Authors: Lorena P Rios, Chenglin Ye and Lehana Thabane

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:11

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Primary prevention programmes are of increasing importance to reduce the impact of chronic diseases on the individual, institutional and societal level. However, most initiatives that develop and implement pri...

    Authors: Iris Pigeot, Stefaan De Henauw, Ronja Foraita, Ingeborg Jahn and Wolfgang Ahrens

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:10

    Content type: Correspondence

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  30. There is an increasing trend towards lower participation in questionnaire surveys. This reduces representativeness, increases costs and introduces particular challenges to longitudinal surveys, as researchers ...

    Authors: Marion Henderson, Daniel Wight, Catherine Nixon and Graham Hart

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:9

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Sampling in the absence of accurate or comprehensive information routinely poses logistical, ethical, and resource allocation challenges in social science, clinical, epidemiological, health service and populat...

    Authors: Melanie J Rock

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:8

    Content type: Research article

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  32. There is no consensus on the most appropriate approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies. Therefore a simulation study was performed to assess the effects of different missin...

    Authors: Andrea Marshall, Douglas G Altman, Patrick Royston and Roger L Holder

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:7

    Content type: Research article

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  33. African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to descri...

    Authors: Babalola Faseru, Lisa S Cox, Carrie A Bronars, Isaac Opole, Gregory A Reed, Matthew S Mayo, Jasjit S Ahluwalia and Kolawole S Okuyemi

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:6

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Research into migration and health is often confronted with methodological challenges related to the identification of migrants in various settings. Furthermore, it is often difficult to reach an acceptable le...

    Authors: Maria Kristiansen, Amani Hassani and Allan Krasnik

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:4

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Cancer screening reduces cancer mortality when early detection allows successful treatment of otherwise fatal disease. There are a variety of trial designs used to find the best screening test. In a series scr...

    Authors: Brandy M Ringham, Todd A Alonzo, Gary K Grunwald and Deborah H Glueck

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:3

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Epidemiologic studies of periodontal infection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease often use clinical periodontal measures as a surrogate for the underlying bacterial exposure of interest. There are cu...

    Authors: Ryan T Demmer, Panos N Papapanou, David R Jacobs Jr and Moïse Desvarieux

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:2

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Pilot studies for phase III trials - which are comparative randomized trials designed to provide preliminary evidence on the clinical efficacy of a drug or intervention - are routinely performed in many clinic...

    Authors: Lehana Thabane, Jinhui Ma, Rong Chu, Ji Cheng, Afisi Ismaila, Lorena P Rios, Reid Robson, Marroon Thabane, Lora Giangregorio and Charles H Goldsmith

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:1

    Content type: Commentary

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  38. The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a si...

    Authors: Philip A Merriam, Yunsheng Ma, Barbara C Olendzki, Kristin L Schneider, Wenjun Li, Ira S Ockene and Sherry L Pagoto

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:87

    Content type: Study protocol

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  39. There is increasing awareness that meta-analyses require a sufficiently large information size to detect or reject an anticipated intervention effect. The required information size in a meta-analysis may be ca...

    Authors: Jørn Wetterslev, Kristian Thorlund, Jesper Brok and Christian Gluud

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:86

    Content type: Research article

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  40. In biometric practice, researchers often apply a large number of different methods in a "trial-and-error" strategy to get as much as possible out of their data and, due to publication pressure or pressure from...

    Authors: Anne-Laure Boulesteix and Carolin Strobl

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:85

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The data from longitudinal complex surveys based on multi-stage sampling designs contain cross-sectional dependencies among units due to clustered nature of the data and within-subject dependencies due to repe...

    Authors: Punam Pahwa and Chandima P Karunanayake

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:84

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Development of three classification trees (CT) based on the CART (Classification and Regression Trees), CHAID (Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection) and C4.5 methodologies for the calculation of probability...

    Authors: Javier Trujillano, Mariona Badia, Luis Serviá, Jaume March and Angel Rodriguez-Pozo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:83

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitat...

    Authors: Alicia O'Cathain, Jon Nicholl and Elizabeth Murphy

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:82

    Content type: Research article

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  44. US Latinos have greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (diabetes), uncontrolled diabetes and diabetes co-morbidities compared to non-Latino Whites. They also have lower literacy levels and are more likely to li...

    Authors: Milagros C Rosal, Mary Jo White, Angela Restrepo, Barbara Olendzki, Jeffrey Scavron, Elise Sinagra, Ira S Ockene, Michael Thompson, Stephenie C Lemon, Lucy M Candib and George Reed

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:81

    Content type: Study protocol

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  45. Meta-analysis is increasingly used as a key source of evidence synthesis to inform clinical practice. The theory and statistical foundations of meta-analysis continually evolve, providing solutions to many new...

    Authors: Byron C Wallace, Christopher H Schmid, Joseph Lau and Thomas A Trikalinos

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:80

    Content type: Software

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  46. The validity of research synthesis is threatened if published studies comprise a biased selection of all studies that have been conducted. We conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the strength and consistency...

    Authors: Fujian Song, Sheetal Parekh-Bhurke, Lee Hooper, Yoon K Loke, Jon J Ryder, Alex J Sutton, Caroline B Hing and Ian Harvey

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:79

    Content type: Research article

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  47. Randomised, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide evidence demonstrating safe, effective interventions that reduce falls and fractures in the elderly. The quality of a clinical trial is dependent on ...

    Authors: Kerrie M Sanders, Amanda L Stuart, Elizabeth N Merriman, Meaghan L Read, Mark A Kotowicz, Doris Young, Roderick Taylor, Ian Blair-Holt, Alistair G Mander and Geoffrey C Nicholson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:78

    Content type: Research article

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