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  1. Content type: Research article

    Hierarchical modelling represents a statistical method used to analyze nested data, as those concerning patients afferent to different hospitals. Aim of this paper is to build a hierarchical regression model u...

    Authors: Paola D'Errigo, Maria E Tosti, Danilo Fusco, Carlo A Perucci and Fulvia Seccareccia

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:29

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Information overload, increasing time constraints, and inappropriate search strategies complicate the detection of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). The aim of this study was to provide clinicians with reco...

    Authors: Andrea Haase, Markus Follmann, Guido Skipka and Hanna Kirchner

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:28

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Data for health surveys are often collected using either mailed questionnaires, telephone interviews or a combination. Mode of data collection can affect the propensity to refuse to respond and result in diffe...

    Authors: Helene Feveile, Ole Olsen and Annie Hogh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:27

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Understanding the relationships between physical activity (PA) and disease has become a major area of research interest. Activity monitors, devices that quantify free-living PA for prolonged periods of time (d...

    Authors: David R Paul, Matthew Kramer, Alanna J Moshfegh, David J Baer and William V Rumpler

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:26

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  5. Content type: Research article

    There is much evidence to suggest that risk for common clinical disorders begins in foetal life. Exposure to environmental risk factors however is often not random. Many commonly used indices of prenatal adver...

    Authors: Anita Thapar, Gordon Harold, Frances Rice, XiaoJia Ge, Jacky Boivin, Dale Hay, Marianne van den Bree and Allyson Lewis

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:25

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  6. Content type: Research article

    To investigate the interchangeability of measures of disability and health-related quality of life (HRQL) by comparing their associations patterns with disease-related impairment measures in patients with a va...

    Authors: Nadine Weisscher, Rob J de Haan and Marinus Vermeulen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:24

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  7. Content type: Technical advance

    The choice between paper data collection methods and electronic data collection (EDC) methods has become a key question for clinical researchers. There remains a need to examine potential benefits, efficiencie...

    Authors: Soe Soe Thwin, Kerri M Clough-Gorr, Maribet C McCarty, Timothy L Lash, Sharon H Alford, Diana SM Buist, Shelley M Enger, Terry S Field, Floyd Frost, Feifei Wei and Rebecca A Silliman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:23

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The ability to locate those sampled has important implications for response rates and thus the success of survey research. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of locating women requiring tracin...

    Authors: Suzanne M Cadarette, Leigh Dickson, Monique AM Gignac, Dorcas E Beaton, Susan B Jaglal and Gillian A Hawker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:22

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  9. Content type: Software

    Claims data provide rapid indicators of SSIs for coronary artery bypass surgery and have been shown to successfully rank hospitals by SSI rates. We now operationalize this method for use by payers without tran...

    Authors: Susan S Huang, James M Livingston, Nigel SB Rawson, Steven Schmaltz and Richard Platt

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:20

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Questionnaires are used routinely in clinical research to measure health status and quality of life. Questionnaire measurements are traditionally formally assessed by indices of reliability (the degree of meas...

    Authors: Matthew Hankins

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:19

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Analyzing drop out rates and when they occur may give important information about the patient characteristics and trial characteristics that affect the overall uptake of an intervention.

    Authors: Carl Heneghan, Rafael Perera, Alison Ward A, David Fitzmaurice, Emma Meats and Paul Glasziou

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:18

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  12. Content type: Debate

    Pragmatic randomised controlled trials are often used in primary care to evaluate the effect of a treatment strategy. In these trials it is difficult to achieve both high internal validity and high generalisab...

    Authors: Gerdine AJ Fransen, Corine J van Marrewijk, Suhreta Mujakovic, Jean WM Muris, Robert JF Laheij, Mattijs E Numans, Niek J de Wit, Melvin Samsom, Jan BMJ Jansen and J André Knottnerus

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:16

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  13. Content type: Research article

    It is notoriously difficult to recruit patients to randomised controlled trials in primary care. This is particularly true when the disease process under investigation occurs relatively infrequently and must b...

    Authors: Brian McKinstry, Victoria Hammersley, Fergus Daly and Frank Sullivan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:15

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Health surveys provide important information on the burden and secular trends of risk factors and disease. Several factors including survey and item non-response can affect data quality. There are few reports ...

    Authors: Rainford Wilks, Novie Younger, Jasneth Mullings, Namvar Zohoori, Peter Figueroa, Marshall Tulloch-Reid, Trevor Ferguson, Christine Walters, Franklyn Bennett, Terrence Forrester, Elizabeth Ward and Deanna Ashley

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:13

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Poor response rates to postal questionnaires can introduce bias and reduce the statistical power of a study. To improve response rates in our trial in primary care we tested the effect of introducing an uncond...

    Authors: Stephen D Brealey, Christine Atwell, Stirling Bryan, Simon Coulton, Helen Cox, Ben Cross, Fiona Fylan, Andrew Garratt, Fiona J Gilbert, Maureen GC Gillan, Maggie Hendry, Kerenza Hood, Helen Houston, David King, Veronica Morton, Jo Orchard…

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:12

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  16. Content type: Research article

    In most case control studies the hardest decision is the choice of the control group, as in the ideal control group the proportion exposed is the same as in the population that produced the cases.

    Authors: Odimariles MS Dantas, Ricardo AA Ximenes, Maria de Fatima PM de Albuquerque, Ulisses R Montarroyos, Wayner V de Souza, Patrícia Varejão and Laura C Rodrigues

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:11

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Our objective was to develop an instrument to assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews, building upon previous tools, empirical evidence and expert consensus.

    Authors: Beverley J Shea, Jeremy M Grimshaw, George A Wells, Maarten Boers, Neil Andersson, Candyce Hamel, Ashley C Porter, Peter Tugwell, David Moher and Lex M Bouter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:10

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Little is known about the response mechanisms among survivors of disasters. We studied the selective attrition and possible bias in a longitudinal study among survivors of a fireworks disaster.

    Authors: Bellis van den Berg, Peter van der Velden, Rebecca Stellato and Linda Grievink

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:8

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  19. Content type: Debate

    To explore the strengths and weaknesses of conventional biomedical research strategies and methods as applied to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and to suggest a new research framework for assess...

    Authors: Vinjar Fønnebø, Sameline Grimsgaard, Harald Walach, Cheryl Ritenbaugh, Arne Johan Norheim, Hugh MacPherson, George Lewith, Laila Launsø, Mary Koithan, Torkel Falkenberg, Heather Boon and Mikel Aickin

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:7

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Often in survey research, subsets of the population invited to complete the survey do not respond in a timely manner and valuable resources are expended in recontact efforts. Various methods of improving respo...

    Authors: Jean-Paul Chretien, Laura K Chu, Tyler C Smith, Besa Smith and Margaret AK Ryan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:6

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Meta-analysis handles randomized trials with no outcome events in both treatment and control arms inconsistently, including them when risk difference (RD) is the effect measure but excluding them when relative...

    Authors: Jan O Friedrich, Neill KJ Adhikari and Joseph Beyene

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:5

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The inclusion of qualitative studies in systematic reviews poses methodological challenges. This paper presents worked examples of two methods of data synthesis (textual narrative and thematic), used in relati...

    Authors: Patricia J Lucas, Janis Baird, Lisa Arai, Catherine Law and Helen M Roberts

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:4

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  23. Content type: Research article

    When multiple endpoints are of interest in evidence synthesis, a multivariate meta-analysis can jointly synthesise those endpoints and utilise their correlation. A multivariate random-effects meta-analysis mus...

    Authors: Richard D Riley, Keith R Abrams, Alexander J Sutton, Paul C Lambert and John R Thompson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:3

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  24. Content type: Study protocol

    This paper describes the study protocol, the recruitment, and base-line data for evaluating the success of randomisation of the PRO-AGE (PRevention in Older people – Assessment in GEneralists' practices) project.

    Authors: Andreas E Stuck, Kalpa Kharicha, Ulrike Dapp, Jennifer Anders, Wolfgang von Renteln-Kruse, Hans Peter Meier-Baumgartner, Steve Iliffe, Danielle Harari, Martin D Bachmann, Matthias Egger, Gerhard Gillmann, John C Beck and Cameron G Swift

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:2

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Health risk appraisal is a promising method for health promotion and prevention in older persons. The Health Risk Appraisal for the Elderly (HRA-E) developed in the U.S. has unique features but has not been te...

    Authors: Andreas E Stuck, Kalpa Kharicha, Ulrike Dapp, Jennifer Anders, Wolfgang von Renteln-Kruse, Hans Peter Meier-Baumgartner, Danielle Harari, Cameron G Swift, Katja Ivanova, Matthias Egger, Gerhard Gillmann, Jerilyn Higa, John C Beck and Steve Iliffe

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:1

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Reasons for attrition in studies vary, but may be a major concern in long-term studies if those who drop out differ systematically from those who continue to participate. Factors associated with dropout were e...

    Authors: Naomi M Gades, Debra J Jacobson, Michaela E McGree, Michael M Lieber, Rosebud O Roberts, Cynthia J Girman and Steven J Jacobsen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:58

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Missing data present a challenge to many research projects. The problem is often pronounced in studies utilizing self-report scales, and literature addressing different strategies for dealing with missing data...

    Authors: Fiona M Shrive, Heather Stuart, Hude Quan and William A Ghali

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:57

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  28. Content type: Correspondence

    It is often stated that external validity is not sufficiently considered in the assessment of clinical studies. Although tools for its evaluation have been established, there is a lack of awareness of their si...

    Authors: Gudrun Bornhöft, Stefanie Maxion-Bergemann, Ursula Wolf, Gunver S Kienle, Andreas Michalsen, Horst C Vollmar, Simon Gilbertson and Peter F Matthiessen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:56

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside sys...

    Authors: Ian Shemilt, Miranda Mugford, Michael Drummond, Eric Eisenstein, Jacqueline Mallender, David McDaid, Luke Vale and Damian Walker

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:55

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Stepped wedge randomised trial designs involve sequential roll-out of an intervention to participants (individuals or clusters) over a number of time periods. By the end of the study, all participants will hav...

    Authors: Celia A Brown and Richard J Lilford

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:54

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Providers use risk-adjustment systems to help manage healthcare costs. Typically, ordinary least squares (OLS) models on either untransformed or log-transformed cost are used. We examine the predictive ability...

    Authors: Maria Montez-Rath, Cindy L Christiansen, Susan L Ettner, Susan Loveland and Amy K Rosen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:53

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  32. Content type: Debate

    Methods for describing one's confidence in the available evidence are useful for end-users of evidence reviews. Analysts inevitably make judgments about the quality, quantity consistency, robustness, and magni...

    Authors: Jonathan R Treadwell, Stephen J Tregear, James T Reston and Charles M Turkelson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:52

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  33. Content type: Software

    Meta-analysis has become a well-known method for synthesis of quantitative data from previously conducted research in applied health sciences. So far, meta-analysis has been particularly useful in evaluating a...

    Authors: Leon Bax, Ly-Mee Yu, Noriaki Ikeda, Harukazu Tsuruta and Karel GM Moons

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:50

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  34. Content type: Research article

    In this paper we compare the results in an analysis of determinants of caregivers' health derived from two approaches, a structural equation model and a log-linear model, using the same data set.

    Authors: Bin Zhu, Stephen D Walter, Peter L Rosenbaum, Dianne J Russell and Parminder Raina

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:49

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The interpretation of the results of active-control trials regarding the efficacy and safety of a new drug is important for drug registration and following clinical use. It has been suggested that non-inferior...

    Authors: Jean-Jacques Parienti, Renaud Verdon and Véronique Massari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:46

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  36. Content type: Correspondence

    A recent paper found that terminal digits of statistical values in Nature deviated significantly from an equiprobable distribution, indicating errors or inconsistencies in rounding. This finding, as well as th...

    Authors: Monwhea Jeng

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:45

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  37. Content type: Correspondence

    The Levels of Evidence Rating System is widely believed to categorize studies by quality, with Level I studies representing the highest quality evidence. We aimed to determine the reporting quality of Randomis...

    Authors: Rudolf W Poolman, Peter AA Struijs, Rover Krips, Inger N Sierevelt, Kristina H Lutz and Mohit Bhandari

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:44

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  38. Content type: Research article

    A trial was commissioned to evaluate the effectiveness of larval therapy to debride and heal sloughy and necrotic venous leg ulcers. Larval therapy in the trial was to be delivered in either loose or bagged fo...

    Authors: ES Petherick, S O'Meara, K Spilsbury, CP Iglesias, EA Nelson and DJ Torgerson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:43

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  39. Content type: Commentary

    Citation counts are often regarded as a measure of the utilization and contribution of published articles. The objective of this study is to assess whether statistical reporting and statistical errors in the a...

    Authors: Pentti Nieminen, James Carpenter, Gerta Rucker and Martin Schumacher

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:42

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Disease specific mortality is often used as outcome rather than total mortality in clinical trials. This approach assumes that the classification of cause of death is unbiased. We explored whether use of funga...

    Authors: Anne K Due, Helle K Johansen and Peter C Gøtzsche

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:40

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  41. Content type: Research article

    Mathematical models are widely used for studying the dynamic of infectious agents such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). Most often, model parameters are estimated using standard least-square procedures for each ind...

    Authors: Rodolphe Thiébaut, Jérémie Guedj, Hélène Jacqmin-Gadda, Geneviève Chêne, Pascale Trimoulet, Didier Neau and Daniel Commenges

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:38

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