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  1. The feasibility of randomized trials often depends on successful patient recruitment. Although numerous recruitment barriers have been identified it is unclear which of them complicate recruitment most. Also, ...

    Authors: Anne Spaar, Martin Frey, Alexander Turk, Werner Karrer and Milo A Puhan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:14
  2. In this study we explored the challenges to establishing a community of practice (CoP) to address standards in general practice. We focused on the issue of improving referral letters which are the main form of...

    Authors: Moyez Jiwa, Kathleen Deas, Jackie Ross, Tim Shaw, Helen Wilcox and Katrina Spilsbury
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:13
  3. In neonatal trials of pre-term or low-birth-weight infants, twins may represent 10–20% of the study sample. Mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations are common approaches for handling correlat...

    Authors: Michele L Shaffer, Allen R Kunselman and Kristi L Watterberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:12
  4. Laser-Doppler imaging (LDI) of cutaneous blood flow is beginning to be used by burn surgeons to predict the healing time of burn wounds; predicted healing time is used to determine wound treatment as either dr...

    Authors: Rose D Baker, Christian Weinand, James C Jeng, Henk Hoeksema, Stan Monstrey, Sarah A Pape, Robert Spence and David Wilson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:11
  5. Multivariate analysis of interval censored event data based on classical likelihood methods is notoriously cumbersome. Likelihood inference for models which additionally include random effects are not availabl...

    Authors: Volkmar Henschel, Jutta Engel, Dieter Hölzel and Ulrich Mansmann
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:9
  6. Extraneous distractions may influence the flow of general practice consultations. This study piloted a methodology to examine the impact of interrupting general practitioners (GPs) while consulting actor-patie...

    Authors: Moyez Jiwa, Robert McKinley, Carolyn O'Shea, Hayley Arnet, Katrina Spilsbury and Marthe Smith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:8
  7. Attributable fractions (AF) assess the proportion of cases in a population attributable to certain risk factors but are infrequently reported and mostly calculated without considering potential confounders. Wh...

    Authors: Simon Rückinger, Rüdiger von Kries and André Michael Toschke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:7
  8. Kappa is commonly used when assessing the agreement of conditions with reference standard, but has been criticized for being highly dependent on the prevalence. To overcome this limitation, a prevalence-adjust...

    Authors: Guanmin Chen, Peter Faris, Brenda Hemmelgarn, Robin L Walker and Hude Quan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:5
  9. To compare the diagnostic accuracy of two continuous screening tests, a common approach is to test the difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. After study partici...

    Authors: Deborah H Glueck, Molly M Lamb, Colin I O'Donnell, Brandy M Ringham, John T Brinton, Keith E Muller, John M Lewin, Todd A Alonzo and Etta D Pisano
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:4
  10. Quality assessment tools for primary studies of test accuracy are relatively well developed, although only one is validated (QUADAS), but very little work has been done to develop tools to quality-assess studi...

    Authors: Catherine A Meads and Clare F Davenport
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:3
  11. In meta-analysis, the presence of funnel plot asymmetry is attributed to publication or other small-study effects, which causes larger effects to be observed in the smaller studies. This issue potentially mean...

    Authors: Santiago G Moreno, Alex J Sutton, AE Ades, Tom D Stanley, Keith R Abrams, Jaime L Peters and Nicola J Cooper
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:2
  12. It can be challenging for patients and clinicians to properly interpret a change in the clinical condition after a treatment has been given. It is not known to which extent spontaneous improvement, effect of p...

    Authors: Lasse Theis Krogsbøll, Asbjørn Hróbjartsson and Peter C Gøtzsche
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2009 9:1
  13. Many epidemiologic studies report the odds ratio as a measure of association for cross-sectional studies with common outcomes. In such cases, the prevalence ratios may not be inferred from the estimated odds r...

    Authors: Carlos Antônio ST Santos, Rosemeire L Fiaccone, Nelson F Oliveira, Sérgio Cunha, Maurício L Barreto, Maria Beatriz B do Carmo, Ana-Lucia Moncayo, Laura C Rodrigues, Philip J Cooper and Leila D Amorim
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:80
  14. The heterogeneity statistic I 2, interpreted as the percentage of variability due to heterogeneity between studies rather than sampling error, depends on precision, that is, the size of the studies included.

    Authors: Gerta Rücker, Guido Schwarzer, James R Carpenter and Martin Schumacher
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:79
  15. The practice of dichotomizing a continuous outcome variable does not make use of within-category information. That means the loss of information. This study compared two approaches in the modelling of the asso...

    Authors: Enayatollah Bakhshi, Mohammad R Eshraghian, Kazem Mohammad and Behjat Seifi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:78
  16. The National Database for Nursing Quality Indicators® (NDNQI®) was established in 1998 to assist hospitals in monitoring indicators of nursing quality (eg, falls and pressure ulcers). Hospitals participating in N...

    Authors: Byron J Gajewski, Jonathan D Mahnken and Nancy Dunton
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:77
  17. Additional insights into patient preferences can be gained by supplementing discrete choice experiments with best-worst choice tasks. However, there are no empirical studies illustrating the relative advantage...

    Authors: Terry N Flynn, Jordan J Louviere, Tim J Peters and Joanna Coast
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:76
  18. A common feature of diagnostic research is that results for a diagnostic gold standard are available primarily for patients who are positive for the test under investigation. Data from such studies are subject...

    Authors: Angel M Cronin and Andrew J Vickers
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:75
  19. There is little information on the validity of using record linkage with routinely collected data for case ascertainment of stroke in large population-based studies in the UK. We examined the accuracy of these...

    Authors: Shubhada Sinha, Phyo K Myint, Robert N Luben and Kay-Tee Khaw
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:74
  20. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of acquired disability. In evaluating the effectiveness of clinical interventions for TBI it is important to measure disability accurately. The Glasgow Outcom...

    Authors: Pablo Perel, Phil Edwards, Haleema Shakur and Ian Roberts
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:72
  21. Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing becau...

    Authors: Joanne O'Toole, Martha Sinclair and Karin Leder
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:71
  22. The objective of most biomedical research is to determine an unbiased estimate of effect for an exposure on an outcome, i.e. to make causal inferences about the exposure. Recent developments in epidemiology ha...

    Authors: Ian Shrier and Robert W Platt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:70
  23. In population studies, body mass index (BMI) is generally calculated from self-reported body weight and height. The self-report of these anthropometrics is known to be biased, resulting in a misclassification ...

    Authors: Johanna C Dekkers, Marieke F van Wier, Ingrid JM Hendriksen, Jos WR Twisk and Willem van Mechelen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:69
  24. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression may be useful to summarize the HIV genotypic information. Without pre-selection each mutation presented in at least one patient is c...

    Authors: Linda Wittkop, Daniel Commenges, Isabelle Pellegrin, Dominique Breilh, Didier Neau, Denis Lacoste, Jean-Luc Pellegrin, Geneviève Chêne, François Dabis and Rodolphe Thiébaut
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:68
  25. Edwards's method is a widely used approach for fitting a sine curve to a time-series of monthly frequencies. From this fitted curve, estimates of the seasonal intensity of occurrence (i.e., peak-to-low ratio o...

    Authors: M Alan Brookhart and Kenneth J Rothman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:67
  26. Database systems have been developed to store data from large medical trials and survey studies. However, a reliable data storage system does not guarantee data entering reliability.

    Authors: Davide Mauri, Vasiliki Karampoiki, Jacopo Mauri, Konstantinos Kamposioras, Georgios Alexiou, Georgios Ferentinos, Lamprini Tsali, Ioanna Karathanasi and Christina Peponi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:66
  27. Within cluster randomized trials no algorithms exist to generate a full enumeration of a block randomization, balancing for covariates across treatment arms. Furthermore, often for practical reasons multiple b...

    Authors: Ben R Carter and Kerenza Hood
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:65
  28. The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide and diabetes is four times more common among ethnic minority groups than among the general Caucasian population. This study reflects on the specific iss...

    Authors: SM Choudhury, S Brophy, MA Fareedi, B Zaman, P Ahmed and DRR Williams
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:64
  29. There is no standardized method for the assessment of physical activity (PA). Therefore it is important to investigate the validity and comparability of different measures. The International Physical Activity ...

    Authors: Nanna Kurtze, Vegar Rangul and Bo-Egil Hustvedt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:63
  30. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is hyper-endemic in injecting drug users. There is also excess HCV among non-injection drug users who smoke, snort, or sniff heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine.

    Authors: Rebecca K Stern, Holly Hagan, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Don Des Jarlais, Roberta Scheinmann, Shiela Strauss, Enrique R Pouget and Peter Flom
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:62
  31. Studies have shown that industry-sponsored meta-analyses of drugs lack scientific rigour and have biased conclusions. However, these studies have been restricted to certain medical specialities. We compared al...

    Authors: Anders W Jørgensen, Katja L Maric, Britta Tendal, Annesofie Faurschou and Peter C Gøtzsche
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:60
  32. Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations.

    Authors: Andreas Beyerlein, Ludwig Fahrmeir, Ulrich Mansmann and André M Toschke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:59
  33. The beta-binomial model is one of the methods that can be used to validly combine event rates from overdispersed binomial data. Our objective is to provide a full description of this method and to update and b...

    Authors: Yinong Young-Xu and K Arnold Chan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:58
  34. Some populations targeted in survey research can be hard to reach, either because of lack of contact information, or non-existent databases to inform sampling. Here, we present a methodological "case-report" o...

    Authors: Danielle A Southern, Steven Lewis, Colleen J Maxwell, James R Dunn, Tom W Noseworthy, Gail Corbett, Karen Thomas and William A Ghali
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:57
  35. Measurement of socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course in population health surveillance systems is important for examining differences in health and illness between different population groups and f...

    Authors: Catherine R Chittleborough, Anne W Taylor, Fran E Baum and Janet E Hiller
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:54
  36. This paper focuses on measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of two diagramming methods employed in key informant interviews with clinicians and health care administrators. The two methods are 'participato...

    Authors: Muriah J Umoquit, Mark J Dobrow, Louise Lemieux-Charles, Paul G Ritvo, David R Urbach and Walter P Wodchis
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:53
  37. Regression to the mean (RTM) occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extreme values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that are closer to the mean of the basic population. In uncontro...

    Authors: Thomas Ostermann, Stefan N Willich and Rainer Lüdtke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:52
  38. Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in...

    Authors: Sirpa-Liisa Hovi, Piret Veerus, Mati Rahu and Elina Hemminki
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:51
  39. Vignette studies of medical choice and judgement have gained popularity in the medical literature. Originally developed in mathematical psychology they can be used to evaluate physicians' behaviour in the sett...

    Authors: Lucas M Bachmann, Andrea Mühleisen, Annekatrin Bock, Gerben ter Riet, Ulrike Held and Alfons GH Kessels
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:50
  40. Investigators are actively testing interventions intended to increase lifespan and wish to test whether the interventions increase maximum lifespan. Based on the fact that one cannot be assured of observing po...

    Authors: Guimin Gao, Wen Wan, Sijian Zhang, David T Redden and David B Allison
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:49
  41. Despite its benefits, it is uncommon to apply the nested case-control design in diagnostic research. We aim to show advantages of this design for diagnostic accuracy studies.

    Authors: Cornelis J Biesheuvel, Yvonne Vergouwe, Ruud Oudega, Arno W Hoes, Diederick E Grobbee and Karel GM Moons
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:48
  42. To create and find accurate and reliable instruments for the measurement of physical activity has been a challenge in epidemiological studies. We investigated the reliability and validity of two different phys...

    Authors: Vegar Rangul, Turid Lingaas Holmen, Nanna Kurtze, Koenraad Cuypers and Kristian Midthjell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:47
  43. In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research...

    Authors: Helen J Smith, Jing Chen and Xiaoyun Liu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:44

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