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Table 2 Bias on the Loevinger's H coefficient as a function of the rate of missing data per item (π), the value of the correlation coefficient ρ between the latent variable Θ and the propensity to have missing data ξ for each method for handling missing data (results for w = 0/w = 1)

From: Imputation by the mean score should be avoided when validating a Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaire by a Rasch model in presence of informative missing data

  π= 10% π= 20% π= 30%
Method ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9 ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9 ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9
PMS 0.08/0.08 0.08/0.08 0.08/0.07 0.14/0.13 0.14/0.13 0.14/0.13 0.18/0.17 0.18/0.17 0.17/0.16
PMS-R 0.04/0.04 0.04/0.04 0.04/0.04 0.07/0.08 0.07/0.07 0.07/0.07 0.10/0.10 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.09
IMS -0.02/-0.02 -0.02/-0.02 -0.02/-0.02 -0.03/-0.03 -0.04/-0.04 -0.04/-0.04 -0.04/-0.04 -0.05/-0.05 -0.06/-0.06
IMS-R -0.04/-0.04 -0.04/-0.04 -0.04/-0.04 -0.07/-0.07 -0.07/-0.07 -0.08/-0.08 -0.09/-0.09 -0.09/-0.09 -0.10/-0.10
CIM 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.09 0.15/0.15 0.15/0.15 0.15/0.15 0.19/0.19 0.20/0.20 0.19/0.20
CIM-R 0.05/0.04 0.05/0.04 0.05/0.04 0.08/0.07 0.09/0.07 0.08/0.07 0.11/0.09 0.11/0.09 0.10/0.08
ICS 0.04/0.04 0.04/0.04 0.04/0.04 0.07/0.07 0.07/0.07 0.07/0.07 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.09 0.08/0.08
LOG 0.03/0.04 0.03/0.04 0.03/0.03 0.04/0.04 0.04/0.04 0.03/0.03 0.04/0.03 0.03/0.03 0.00/0.01
LOG-R -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.01 -0.02/-0.02 -0.02/-0.03 -0.03/-0.03 -0.04/-0.04 -0.05/-0.05 -0.06/-0.06
MOK 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.09/0.10 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.09 0.12/0.12 0.12/0.12 0.11/0.12
RAS 0.02/0.02 0.02/0.02 0.02/0.02 0.04/0.04 0.04/0.04 0.03/0.04 0.04/0.05 0.04/0.05 0.04/0.05
RAS-R -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.01 -0.01/-0.02 -0.02/-0.02 -0.02/-0.02
RAI 0.03/0.03 0.03/0.03 0.03/0.03 0.12/0.10 0.12/0.10 0.11/0.10 0.16/0.15 0.16/0.15 0.15/0.15
WORST -0.05/-0.04 -0.03/-0.03 -0.02/-0.01 -0.09/-0.07 -0.07/-0.05 -0.04/-0.02 -0.11/-0.09 -0.09/-0.07 -0.07/-0.04
NOIMP 0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/0.00 -0.01/-0.01 -0.04/-0.04
LD 0.00/-0.00 0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.02/-0.01 0.00/0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.01/-0.01