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Table 7 Bias on the PSI as a function of the rate of missing data per item (π), the value of the correlation coefficient ρ between the latent variable Θ and the propensity to have missing data ξ for each method for handling missing data (results for w = 0/w = 1)

From: Imputation by the mean score should be avoided when validating a Patient Reported Outcomes questionnaire by a Rasch model in presence of informative missing data

  π= 10% π= 20% π= 30%
Method ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9 ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9 ρ= 0.0 ρ= -0.4 ρ= -0.9
PMS 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.10 0.13/0.13 0.13/0.13 0.13/0.13 0.13/0.09 0.13/0.09 0.12/0.09
PMS-R 0.06/0.06 0.06/0.06 0.06/0.06 0.08/0.08 0.08/0.08 0.08/0.08 0.07/0.06 0.07/0.06 0.06/0.06
IMS -0.05/-0.05 -0.05/-0.05 -0.05/-0.05 -0.09/-0.09 -0.10/-0.09 -0.10/-0.10 -0.14/-0.05 -0.14/-0.05 -0.16/-0.05
IMS-R -0.06/-0.06 -0.06/-0.06 -0.06/-0.06 -0.12/-0.12 -0.12/-0.12 -0.12/-0.12 -0.17/-0.06 -0.17/-0.06 -0.18/-0.06
CIM 0.09/0.08 0.09/0.09 0.09/0.09 0.12/0.12 0.12/0.12 0.12/0.12 0.12/0.08 0.12/0.09 0.12/0.09
CIM-R 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.06/0.05 0.07/0.06 0.08/0.06 0.08/0.07 0.06/0.05 0.06/0.05 0.06/0.05
ICS 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.07/0.07 0.07/0.07 0.07/0.07 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.04/0.05
LOG 0.02/0.02 0.02/0.02 0.02/0.02 -0.00/0.00 -0.00/0.00 -0.01/-0.01 -0.05/0.02 -0.06/0.02 -0.08/0.02
LOG-R -0.02/-0.02 -0.02/-0.02 -0.02/-0.02 -0.06/-0.06 -0.06/-0.06 -0.07/-0.05 -0.11/-0.02 -0.11/-0.02 -0.13/-0.02
MOK 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.04/0.04 0.06/0.07 0.06/0.06 0.06/0.06 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.04/0.04
RAS 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.05/0.05 0.07/0.07 0.07/0.07 0.07/0.07 0.05/0.06 0.05/0.06 0.04/0.06
RAS-R 0.01/0.01 0.01/0.01 0.01/0.01 -0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 0.00/0.00 -0.03/0.01 -0.03/0.01 -0.03/0.01
RAI 0.05/0.01 0.05/0.06 0.05/0.06 0.12/0.12 0.12/0.12 0.12/0.12 0.13/0.06 0.12/0.06 0.12/0.06
WORST -0.06/-0.06 -0.04/-0.04 -0.01/-0.01 -0.13/-0.12 -0.09/-0.09 -0.05/-0.05 -0.19/-0.06 -0.16/-0.04 -0.12/-0.01
NOIMP -0.03/-0.03 -0.03/-0.03 -0.03/-0.03 -0.06/-0.06 -0.07/-0.06 -0.07/-0.06 -0.10/-0.03 -0.10/-0.03 -0.11/-0.03
LD -0.00/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.01/-0.00 -0.00/-0.00 -0.01/-0.01 -0.03/-0.02 -0.01/-0.00 -0.02/-0.00 -0.07/-0.01