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Table 3 The coding framework

From: “Best fit” framework synthesis: refining the method

Concepts derived for coding


Beliefs about smoking

Person considers there to be or not to be a problem

Perceived pros and cons of smoking

Person beginning to consider benefits of change;

Perceived susceptibility to disease (I don’t think anything will happen to me vs my family has a history)

Perceived seriousness of disease (not bothered vs very concerned)

Perceived norms regarding smoking

I am participating or not participating because it is expected of me

Priority of quitting

It is/is not important to me; I see it as urgent, to be done soon vs no rush

Perceived ability to quit

A person’s confidence in their ability to take action and persist in action: I feel able to quit or I feel the programme provides me the ability or motivation to quit; self-efficacy


I am addicted, nothing will work; or no programme works; I’ve tried quitting before but without success, it’s too hard

Social support

It was very helpful to have the support of my: Friends; Family

Organisation support

The work environment is/is not conducive to quitting smoking


I am participating because the programme is available


Substitution of alternatives to the problem behaviour

Incentives to quit

Receiving a reward for making the change. The provision of items such as money, prizes and products, or some form of self-reward, which are intended to motivate smokers to reduce consumption or quit