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Table 5 Comparison of performance of the different criteria with regards the probability and the opportunity cost associated with adopting a treatment that does not have highest true NMB. The values shown in bold represent the most favourable of all criteria for this measure

From: Which interactions matter in economic evaluations? A systematic review and simulation study

CriterionProportion of samples in which interactions are included: % (n)aSensitivity: proportion of any non-zero interactions taken into account: % (n)bSpecificity: proportion of interactions equal to 0 that are excluded: % (n)cMean opportunity cost of adopting a suboptimal treatmentProbability of adopting treatment with highest NMB
1: Always include all interactions100.00% (21,600)100.00% (14,400)0.00% (0)£47281.70%
2: Never include any interactions0.00% (0)0.00% (0)100.00% (7200)£79376.60%
3: Include interactions where p < 0.0534.44% (7439)46.59% (6709)89.86% (6470)£55680.61%
4: Include interactions where p < 0.1044.86% (9689)56.87% (8189)79.17% (5700)£51581.32%
5: Include interactions where p < 0.2568.45% (14,785)77.18% (11,114)49.01% (3529)£49181.58%
6: Include interactions decreasing AIC40.74% (8800)52.91% (7619)83.60% (6019)£52981.11%
7: Include interactions decreasing BIC19.79% (4275)28.88% (4158)98.38% (7083)£64678.32%
8: Include qualitative interactions in cost or benefits42.02% (9076)47.54% (6846)69.03% (4970)£50381.71%
9: Include interactions for cost or benefits if >simple effect56.04% (12,104)63.77% (9183)59.43% (4279)£47483.31%
10: Include interactions for cost or benefits if p < 0.05 or > simple effect61.78% (13,344)71.42% (10,285)57.51% (4141)£47583.14%
11: Include qualitative interactions for cost, benefits or NMB57.01% (12,314)60.76% (8749)50.49% (3635)£48081.21%
12: Include interactions for cost, benefit or NMB if >simple effect67.85% (14,656)73.40% (10,569)43.24% (3113)£47581.55%
13: Include interactions ≥0.25 or ≥ £25031.92% (6894)37.02% (5331)78.29% (5637)£47281.22%
14: Include interactions ≥0.5 or ≥ £50021.73% (4694)24.69% (3555)84.18% (6061)£47682.33%
15: Include interactions ≥1 or ≥ £100016.65% (3596)18.51% (2666)87.08% (6270)£48882.01%
  1. Abbreviations: AIC Akaike information criterion, BIC Bayesian information criterion, NMB net monetary benefit, QALY quality-adjusted life-year
  2. a Percentages are out of 21,600 (300 samples of 6 trials, each with six scenarios across two endpoints [costs and QALYs])
  3. b Percentages are out of 14,400 (300 samples of 6 trials, each with four scenarios with non-zero interactions across two endpoints [costs and QALYs])
  4. c Percentages are out of 7200 (300 samples of 6 trials, each with two scenarios with zero interactions across two endpoints [costs and QALYs])