Boyle P, Parkin DM. Cancer registration: principles and methods. Statistical methods for registries. IARC Sci Publ. 1991;95:126–58.
Boniol M, Heanue M. Age-standardisation and denominators. Cancer Incidence in five continents. 2007;9:99–101.
Brooke HL, Talbäck M, Feychting M, Ljung R. Methodological choices affect cancer incidence rates: a cohort study. Popul Health Metr. 2017;15(1):2.
Spronk I, Korevaar JC, Poos R, Davids R, Hilderink H, Schellevis FG, et al. Calculating incidence rates and prevalence proportions: not as simple as it seems. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):512.
Bray F, Parkin DM. Evaluation of data quality in the cancer registry: principles and methods. Part I: comparability, validity and timeliness. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45(5):747–55.
Stevens GA, Alkema L, Black RE, Boerma JT, Collins GS, Ezzati M, et al. Guidelines for accurate and transparent health estimates reporting: the GATHER statement. PLoS Med. 2016;13(6):e1002056.
Murray CJL, Frenk J. Health metrics and evaluation: strengthening the science. Lancet. 2008;371(9619):1191–9.
Attia A. Why should researchers report the confidence interval in modern research. Middle East Fertil Soc J. 2005;10(1):78–81.
Parkin DM, Bray F. Evaluation of data quality in the cancer registry: principles and methods Part II. Completeness. Eur J Cancer. 2009;45(5):756–64.
Yang DX, Khera R, Miccio JA, Jairam V, Chang E, Yu JB, et al. Prevalence of missing data in the National Cancer Database and association with overall survival. medRxiv. 2021:2020.10.30.20220855.
Munafò MR, Nosek BA, Bishop DVM, Button KS, Chambers CD, du PercieSert N, et al. A manifesto for reproducible science. Nature Human Behaviour. 2017;1(1):0021.
Shelton BK. Introduction to colorectal cancer. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2002;18(2 Suppl 2):2–12.
Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, et al. Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021;71(3):209–49.
Keum N, Giovannucci E. Global burden of colorectal cancer: emerging trends, risk factors and prevention strategies. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;16(12):713–32.
Gorin SS. Multilevel approaches to reducing diagnostic and treatment delay in colorectal cancer. Ann Fam Med. 2019;17(5):386–9.
Schreuders EH, Ruco A, Rabeneck L, Schoen RE, Sung JJ, Young GP, et al. Colorectal cancer screening: a global overview of existing programmes. Gut. 2015;64(10):1637–49.
Page MJ, McKenzie JE, Bossuyt PM, Boutron I, Hoffmann TC, Mulrow CD, et al. The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews. BMJ. 2021;372:n71.
Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan—a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2016;5(1):210.
Munn Z, Moola S, Riitano D, Lisy K. The development of a critical appraisal tool for use in systematic reviews addressing questions of prevalence. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2014;3(3):123–8.
Downes MJ, Brennan ML, Williams HC, Dean RS. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS). BMJ Open. 2016;6(12):e011458.
Saad El Din K, Loree JM, Sayre EC, Gill S, Brown CJ, Dau H, et al. Trends in the epidemiology of young-onset colorectal cancer: a worldwide systematic review. BMC Cancer. 2020;20(1):288.
Abdifard E, Amini S, Bab S, Masroor N, Khachian A, Heidari M. Incidence trends of colorectal cancer in Iran during 2000–2009: a population-based study. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2016;30:382.
Abdifard E, Ghaderi S, Hosseini S, Heidari M. Incidence trends of colorectal cancer in the West of Iran during 2000–2005. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(3):1807–11.
Abreu MH, Matos E, Castro Pocas F, Rocha R, Pinto J, Lopes C. Staging and survival of rectal cancer in Vila Nova de Gaia. Portugal Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22(2):151–6.
Abu Hassan MR, Ismail I, Mohd Suan MA, Ahmad F, Wan Khazim WK, Othman Z, et al. Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer in Malaysia. Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016007.
Abualkhair WH, Zhou M, Ahnen D, Yu Q, Wu XC, Karlitz JJ. Trends in incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer in the United States Among those approaching screening age. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(1):e1920407.
Al Dahhan SA, Al Lami FH. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer in Iraq, 2002–2014. Gulf J Oncolog. 2018;1(26):23–6.
Araghi M, Fidler MM, Arnold M, Jemal A, Bray F, Soerjomataram I. The future burden of colorectal cancer among US blacks and whites. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2018;110(7):791–3.
Araghi M, Soerjomataram I, Bardot A, Ferlay J, Cabasag CJ, Morrison DS, et al. Changes in colorectal cancer incidence in seven high-income countries: a population-based study. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;4(7):511–8.
Ashktorab H, Vilmenay K, Brim H, Laiyemo AO, Kibreab A, Nouraie M. Colorectal cancer in young African Americans: is it time to revisit guidelines and prevention? Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61(10):3026–30.
Austin H, Henley SJ, King J, Richardson LC, Eheman C. Changes in colorectal cancer incidence rates in young and older adults in the United States: what does it tell us about screening. Cancer Causes Control. 2014;25(2):191–201.
Aziz H, Pandit V, DiGiovanni RM, Ohlson E, Gruessner AC, Jandova J, et al. Increased incidence of early onset colorectal cancer in Arizona: a comprehensive 15-year analysis of the Arizona cancer registry. J Gastrointest Dig Syst. 2015;5(5):345.
Bailey CE, Hu CY, You YN, Bednarski BK, Rodriguez-Bigas MA, Skibber JM, et al. Increasing disparities in the age-related incidences of colon and rectal cancers in the United States, 1975–2010. JAMA Surg. 2015;150(1):17–22.
Baniasadi N, Moghtader E, Khajehkazemi R, Mohebbi E. Increasing trend in colorectal cancer incidence in the Southeast of Iran 2003–2013: a population based cancer registry study. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(13):5257–60.
Bhurgri Y, Khan T, Kayani N, Ahmad R, Usman A, Bhurgri A, et al. Incidence and current trends of colorectal malignancies in an unscreened, low risk Pakistan population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(3):703–8.
Boyce S, Nassar N, Lee CY, Suen MK, Al Zahrani S, Gladman MA. Young-onset colorectal cancer in New South Wales: a population-based study. Med J Aust. 2016;205(10):465–70.
BraendegaardWinther S, Baatrup G, Pfeiffer P, Qvortrup C. Academy of Geriatric Cancer R. Trends in colorectal cancer in the elderly in Denmark, 1980–2012. Acta Oncol. 2016;55(Suppl 1):29–39.
Brenner H, Schrotz-King P, Holleczek B, Katalinic A, Hoffmeister M. Declining bowel cancer incidence and mortality in Germany. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016;113(7):101–6.
Brouwer NPM, Bos A, Lemmens V, Tanis PJ, Hugen N, Nagtegaal ID, et al. An overview of 25 years of incidence, treatment and outcome of colorectal cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2018;143(11):2758–66.
Caldarella A, Crocetti E, Messerini L, Paci E. Trends in colorectal incidence by anatomic subsite from 1985 to 2005: a population-based study. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2013;28(5):637–41.
Carroll R, Zhao S. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence and survival in Iowa SEER data: the timing of it all. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2019;18(2):e261–74.
Chambers AC, Dixon SW, White P, Williams AC, Thomas MG, Messenger DE. Demographic trends in the incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer: a population-based study. Br J Surg. 2020;107(5):595–605.
Chatterjee S, Chattopadhyay A, Levine PH. Between-ward disparities in colorectal cancer incidence and screening in Washington DC. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2015;5(4 Suppl 1):S1-9.
Alsanea N, Abduljabbar AS, Alhomoud S, Ashari LH, Hibbert D, Bazarbashi S. Colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia: incidence, survival, demographics and implications for national policies. Ann Saudi Med. 2015;35(3):196–202.
Chauvenet M, Cottet V, Lepage C, Jooste V, Faivre J, Bouvier AM. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence: a period and birth-cohort analysis in a well-defined French population. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:282.
Chen TA, Kang HY, Chang HC, Lin WC, Chao TM, Horng JT. Gender differences in colorectal cancer during the past 20 years in Taiwan. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2012;27(3):345–53.
Cheng L, Eng C, Nieman LZ, Kapadia AS, Du XL. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic site and disease stage in the United States from 1976 to 2005. Am J Clin Oncol. 2011;34(6):573–80.
Chernyavskiy P, Kennerley VM, Jemal A, Little MP, Rosenberg PS. Heterogeneity of colon and rectum cancer incidence across 612 SEER counties, 2000–2014. Int J Cancer. 2019;144(8):1786–95.
Chittleborough TJ, Gutlic I, Pearson JF, Watson A, Bhatti LA, Buchwald P, et al. Increasing incidence of young-onset colorectal carcinoma a 3-country population analysis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2020;63(7):903–10.
Chong VH, Telisinghe PU, Bickle I, Abdullah MS, Lim E, Chong CF. Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer, starting at a younger age for rectal compared to colon cancer in Brunei Darussalam. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(12):5063–7.
Clarke N, McDevitt J, Kearney PM, Sharp L. Increasing late stage colorectal cancer and rectal cancer mortality demonstrates the need for screening: a population based study in Ireland, 1994–2010. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:92.
Crocetti E, Buzzoni C, Zappa M. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2010;19(6):424–5.
Crosbie AB, Roche LM, Johnson LM, Pawlish KS, Paddock LE, Stroup AM. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Cancer Med. 2018;7(8):4077–86.
Danos DM, Ferguson TF, Simonsen NR, Leonardi C, Yu Q, Wu XC, et al. Neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence: a population-based study in Louisiana. Ann Epidemiol. 2018;28(5):316–21.
Dehghani SL, Rezaianzadeh A, Safe M, Tabatabaee H. Trends of incidence of colorectal cancer in Iran, 2003–2010: Revista Latinoamericana de Hiperten. 2019;14(4):456–61.
Edwards BK, Ward E, Kohler BA, Eheman C, Zauber AG, Anderson RN, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975–2006, featuring colorectal cancer trends and impact of interventions (risk factors, screening, and treatment) to reduce future rates. Cancer. 2010;116(3):544–73.
Ellis L, Abrahao R, McKinley M, Yang J, Somsouk M, Marchand LL, et al. Colorectal cancer incidence trends by age, stage, and racial/ethnic group in California, 1990–2014. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2018;27(9):1011–8.
Enayatrad M, Yavari P, Etemad K, Khodakarim S, Mahdavi S. Association of urbanization levels and colorectal cancer incidence in Iran. Int J Cancer Manag. 2018;11(8):7
Eser S, Chang J, Charalambous H, Silverman B, Demetriou A, Yakut C, et al. Incidence patterns of colorectal cancers in four countries of the Middle East Cancer Consortium (Cyprus, Jordan, Israel, and Izmir, Turkey) compared with those in the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2018;29(1):36–44.
Exarchakou A, Donaldson LJ, Girardi F, Coleman MP. Colorectal cancer incidence among young adults in England: trends by anatomical sub-site and deprivation. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0225547.
Feletto E, Yu XQ, Lew JB, St John DJB, Jenkins MA, Macrae FA, et al. Trends in colon and rectal cancer incidence in Australia from 1982 to 2014: analysis of data on over 375,000 cases. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2019;28(1):83–90.
Hasanpour-Heidari S, Fazel A, Semnani S, Khandoozi SR, Amiriani T, Sedaghat S, et al. Temporal and geographical variations in colorectal cancer incidence in Northern Iran 2004–2013. Cancer Epidemiol. 2019;59:143–7.
Lemmens V, van Steenbergen L, Janssen-Heijnen M, Martijn H, Rutten H, Coebergh JW. Trends in colorectal cancer in the south of the Netherlands 1975–2007: rectal cancer survival levels with colon cancer survival. Acta Oncol. 2010;49(6):784–96.
May FP, Glenn BA, Crespi CM, Ponce N, Spiegel BMR, Bastani R. Decreasing black-white disparities in colorectal cancer incidence and stage at presentation in the United States. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017;26(5):762–8.
Fusco M, Pezzi A, Benatti P, Roncucci L, Chiodini P, Di Maio G, et al. Clinical features and colorectal cancer survival: an attempt to explain differences between two different Italian regions. Eur J Cancer. 2010;46(1):142–9.
Klugarova J, Klugar M, Muzik J, Jarkovsky J, Licenik R, Burilova P, et al. Use of epidemiological analyses in development of colorectal cancer clinical practice guidelines in the Czech Republic. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2019;17(Suppl 1):S57–61.
Koblinski J, Jandova J, Nfonsam V. Disparities in incidence of early- and late-onset colorectal cancer between hispanics and whites: a 10-year SEER database study. Am J Surg. 2018;215(4):581–5.
Martinsen RP, Morris CR, Pinheiro PS, Parikh-Patel A, Kizer KW. Colorectal cancer trends in California and the need for greater screening of hispanic men. Am J Prev Med. 2016;51(6):e155–63.
Giddings BH, Kwong SL, Parikh-Patel A, Bates JH, Snipes KP. Going against the tide: increasing incidence of colorectal cancer among Koreans, Filipinos, and South Asians in California, 1988–2007. Cancer Causes Control. 2012;23(5):691–702.
Missaoui N, Jaidaine L, Abdelkader AB, Trabelsi A, Mokni M, Hmissa S. Colorectal cancer in Central Tunisia: increasing incidence trends over a 15-year period. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011;12(4):1073–6.
Kelly JJ, Alberts SR, Sacco F, Lanier AP. Colorectal cancer in alaska native people, 2005–2009. Gastrointest Cancer Res. 2012;5(5):149–54.
Loomans-Kropp HA, Umar A. Increasing Incidence of colorectal cancer in young adults. J Cancer Epidemiol. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9841295.
Gandhi J, Davidson C, Hall C, Pearson J, Eglinton T, Wakeman C, et al. Population-based study demonstrating an increase in colorectal cancer in young patients. Br J Surg. 2017;104(8):1063–8.
Lopez A, Bouvier AM, Jooste V, Cottet V, Romain G, Faivre J, et al. Outcomes following polypectomy for malignant colorectal polyps are similar to those following surgery in the general population. Gut. 2019;68(1):111–7.
Lopez-Abente G, Ardanaz E, Torrella-Ramos A, Mateos A, Delgado-Sanz C, Chirlaque MD, et al. Changes in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality trends in Spain. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(Suppl 3):iii76-82.
McClements PL, Madurasinghe V, Thomson CS, Fraser CG, Carey FA, Steele RJ, et al. Impact of the UK colorectal cancer screening pilot studies on incidence, stage distribution and mortality trends. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36(4):e232–42.
Gan T, Sinner HF, Walling SC, Chen Q, Huang B, Tucker TC, et al. Impact of the affordable care act on colorectal cancer screening, incidence, and survival in Kentucky. J Am Coll Surg. 2019;228(4):342–53.
Ladabaum U, Clarke CA, Press DJ, Mannalithara A, Myer PA, Cheng I, et al. Colorectal cancer incidence in Asian populations in California: effect of nativity and neighborhood-level factors. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(4):579–88.
Fowler B, Samadder NJ, Kepka D, Ding Q, Pappas L, Kirchhoff AC. Improvements in colorectal cancer incidence not experienced by nonmetropolitan women: a population-based study from Utah. J Rural Health. 2018;34(2):155–61.
Meester RGS, Mannalithara A, Lansdorp-Vogelaar I, Ladabaum U. Trends in incidence and stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in adults aged 40 through 49 years, 1975–2015. JAMA. 2019;321(19):1933–4.
Li Z, Yang L, Du C, Fang X, Wang N, Gu J. Characteristics and comparison of colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing with other regions in the world. Oncotarget. 2017;8(15):24593–603.
Liu S, Zheng R, Zhang M, Zhang S, Sun X, Chen W. Incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in China, 2011. Chin J Cancer Res. 2015;27(1):22–8.
Jayarajah U, Udayanga V, Fernando A, Samarasekera DN, Seneviratne S. The incidence and patterns of colorectal cancers in Sri Lanka from 2001 to 2010: Analysis of national cancer registry data. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2020;29(4):e13247.
Katsidzira L, Chokunonga E, Gangaidzo IT, Rusakaniko S, Borok M, Matsena-Zingoni Z, et al. The incidence and histo-pathological characteristics of colorectal cancer in a population based cancer registry in Zimbabwe. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;44:96–100.
Fournel I, Bourredjem A, Sauleau EA, Cottet V, Dejardin O, Bouvier AM, et al. Small-area geographic and socioeconomic inequalities in colorectal tumour detection in France. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2016;25(4):269–74.
Lee Y-C, Hsu C-Y, Chen SL-S, Yen AM-F, Chiu SY-H, Fann JC-Y, et al. Effects of screening and universal healthcare on long-term colorectal cancer mortality. Int J Epidemiol. 2019;48(2):538–48.
Khiari H, Hsairi M. Colorectal cancer incidence and clinicopathological features in northern Tunisia 2007–2009. Colorectal Cancer. 2017;6(4):131–41.
Khosravi Shadmani F, Ayubi E, Khazaei S, Sani M, Mansouri Hanis S, Khazaei S, et al. Geographic distribution of the incidence of colorectal cancer in Iran: a population-based study. Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017020.
Merrill RM, Anderson AE. Risk-adjusted colon and rectal cancer incidence rates in the United States. Dis Colon Rectum. 2011;54(10):1301–6.
Klimczak A, Kempinska-Miroslawska B, Mik M, Dziki L, Dziki A. Incidence of colorectal cancer in Poland in 1999–2008. Arch Med Sci. 2011;7(4):673–8.
Khiari H, Ben Ayoub HW, Ben Khadhra H, Hsairi M. Colorectal cancer incidence trend and projections in Tunisia (1994–2024). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(10):2733–9.
Jandova J, Ohlson E, Torres BSM, DiGiovanni R, Pandit V, Elquza E, et al. Racial disparities and socioeconomic status in the incidence of colorectal cancer in Arizona. Am J Surg. 2016;212(3):485–92.
Li K, Lin GZ, Li Y, Dong H, Xu H, Song SF, et al. Spatio-temporal analysis of the incidence of colorectal cancer in Guangzhou, 2010–2014. Chin J Cancer. 2017;36(1):60.
Meza R, Jeon J, Renehan AG, Luebeck EG. Colorectal cancer incidence trends in the United States and United kingdom: evidence of right- to left-sided biological gradients with implications for screening. Cancer Res. 2010;70(13):5419–29.
Jafri NS, Gould M, El-Serag HB, Duan Z, Davila JA. Incidence and survival of colorectal cancer among Hispanics in the United States: a population-based study. Dig Dis Sci. 2013;58(7):2052–60.
McDevitt J, Comber H, Walsh PM. Colorectal cancer incidence and survival by sub-site and stage of diagnosis: a population-based study at the advent of national screening. Ir J Med Sci. 2017;186(1):113–21.
Khachfe HH, Salhab HA, Fares MY, Khachfe HM. Probing the colorectal cancer incidence in Lebanon: an 11-year epidemiological study. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2020;51(3):805–12.
Meyer JE, Narang T, Schnoll-Sussman FH, Pochapin MB, Christos PJ, Sherr DL. Increasing incidence of rectal cancer in patients aged younger than 40 years: an analysis of the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results database. Cancer. 2010;116(18):4354–9.
Garcia S, Pruitt SL, Singal AG, Murphy CC. Colorectal cancer incidence among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States. Cancer Causes Control. 2018;29(11):1039–46.
Fournel I, Cottet V, Binquet C, Jooste V, Faivre J, Bouvier AM, et al. Rural-urban inequalities in detection rates of colorectal tumours in the population. Dig Liver Dis. 2012;44(2):172–7.
Brenner DR, Ruan Y, Shaw E, De P, Heitman SJ, Hilsden RJ. Increasing colorectal cancer incidence trends among younger adults in Canada. Prev Med. 2017;105:345–9.
Brenner DR, Heer E, Sutherland RL, Ruan Y, Tinmouth J, Heitman SJ, et al. National trends in colorectal cancer incidence among older and younger adults in Canada. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(7):e198090.
Fedewa SA, Siegel RL, Jemal A. Are temporal trends in colonoscopy among young adults concordant with colorectal cancer incidence? J Med Screen. 2019;26(4):179–85.
Augustus GJ, Roe DJ, Jacobs ET, Lance P, Ellis NA. Is increased colorectal screening effective in preventing distant disease? PloS One. 2018;13(7):e0200462.
Davis DM, Marcet JE, Frattini JC, Prather AD, Mateka JJ, Nfonsam VN. Is it time to lower the recommended screening age for colorectal cancer? J Am Coll Surg. 2011;213(3):352–61.
Domati F, Maffei S, Kaleci S, Di Gregorio C, Pedroni M, Roncucci L, et al. Incidence, clinical features and possible etiology of early onset (</=40 years) colorectal neoplasms. Intern Emerg Med. 2014;9(6):623–31.
Koblinski J, Jandova J, Pandit V, Omesiete P, Nfonsam V. Disparities in colon and rectal cancer queried individually between Hispanics and Whites. J Gastrointest Oncol. 2019;10(4):632–40.
Purim O, Gordon N, Brenner B. Cancer of the colon and rectum: potential effects of sex-age interactions on incidence and outcome. Med Sci Monit. 2013;19:203–9.
Vuik FE, Nieuwenburg SA, Bardou M, Lansdorp-Vogelaar I, Dinis-Ribeiro M, Bento MJ, et al. Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in young adults in Europe over the last 25 years. Gut. 2019;68(10):1820–6.
Shafqat H, Ali S, Salhab M, Olszewski AJ. Survival of patients with neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon and rectum: a population-based analysis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2015;58(3):294–303.
Safaee A, Fatemi SR, Ashtari S, Vahedi M, Moghimi-Dehkordi B, Zali MR. Four years incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Iran: a survey of national cancer registry data - implications for screening. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(6):2695–8.
Siegel RL, Miller KD, Fedewa SA, Ahnen DJ, Meester RGS, Barzi A, et al. Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67(3):177–93.
Singh H, Nugent Z, Decker K, Deniers A, Samaddar J, Torabi M. Geographic variation and factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence in Manitoba. Can J Public Health. 2017;108(5–6):e558–64.
Savijarvi S, Seppa K, Malila N, Pitkaniemi J, Heikkinen S. Trends of colorectal cancer incidence by education and socioeconomic status in Finland. Acta Oncol. 2019;58(11):1557–63.
Rahman R, Schmaltz C, Jackson CS, Simoes EJ, Jackson-Thompson J, Ibdah JA. Increased risk for colorectal cancer under age 50 in racial and ethnic minorities living in the United States. Cancer Med. 2015;4(12):1863–70.
Nfonsam VN, Vijayasekaran A, Pandit V, E V, Aziz H, Nzuonkwelle S, et al. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer in rural areas in Arizona typically present with higher stage disease. J Gastrointest Dig Syst. 2015;5(5):346.
Van Beck KC, Jasek J, Roods K, Brown JJ, Farley SM, List JM. Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates among New York City adults ages 20–54 years during 1976–2015. JNCI Cancer Spectr. 2018;2(4):pky048.
Sammour T, Kahokehr A, Vather R, Connolly AB, Hill AG. Ethnic disparity in colonic cancer outcomes in New Zealand–biology or an access issue? Colorectal Dis. 2010;12(7 Online):e50–6.
Mosli MH, Al-Ahwal MS. Colorectal cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: need for screening. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(8):3809–13.
Mosli MH, Al-Ahwal MS. Does the increasing trend of colorectal cancer incidence in jeddah reflect a rise in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(12):6285–8.
Russo AG, Andreano A, Sartore-Bianchi A, Mauri G, Decarli A, Siena S. Increased incidence of colon cancer among individuals younger than 50 years: a 17 years analysis from the cancer registry of the municipality of Milan. Italy Cancer Epidemiol. 2019;60:134–40.
Sheneman DW, Finch JL, Messersmith WA, Leong S, Goodman KA, Davis SL, et al. The impact of young adult colorectal cancer: incidence and trends in Colorado. Colorectal Cancer. 2017;6(2):49–56.
Oliphant R, Brewster DH, Morrison DS. The changing association between socioeconomic circumstances and the incidence of colorectal cancer: a population-based study. Br J Cancer. 2011;104(11):1791–6.
Perdue DG, Haverkamp D, Perkins C, Daley CM, Provost E. Geographic variation in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, age of onset, and stage at diagnosis among American Indian and Alaska Native people, 1990–2009. Am J Public Health. 2014;104(Suppl 3):S404–14.
Murphy CC, Sandler RS, Sanoff HK, Yang YC, Lund JL, Baron JA. Decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer among individuals 50 years or older after recommendations for population-based screening. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017;15(6):903–9.
Shah AB, Sarfati D, Blakely T, Atkinson J, Dennett ER. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates in New Zealand, 1981–2004. ANZ J Surg. 2012;82(4):258–64.
Siegel RL, Miller KD, Goding Sauer A, Fedewa SA, Butterly LF, Anderson JC, et al. Colorectal cancer statistics, 2020. CA Cancer J Clin. 2020;70(3):145–64.
Murphy G, Devesa SS, Cross AJ, Inskip PD, McGlynn KA, Cook MB. Sex disparities in colorectal cancer incidence by anatomic subsite, race and age. Int J Cancer. 2011;128(7):1668–75.
Shin A, Kim KZ, Jung KW, Park S, Won YJ, Kim J, et al. Increasing trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Korea, 1999–2009. Cancer Res Treat. 2012;44(4):219–26.
Patel P, De P. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence and related lifestyle risk factors in 15–49-year-olds in Canada, 1969–2010. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;42:90–100.
Pakzad R, Moudi A, Pournamdar Z, Pakzad I, Mohammadian-Hashejani A, Momenimovahed Z, et al. Spatial analysis of colorectal cancer in Iran. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(S3):53–8.
Siegel RL, Fedewa SA, Anderson WF, Miller KD, Ma J, Rosenberg PS, et al. Colorectal cancer incidence patterns in the United States, 1974–2013. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017;109(8):djw322.
Pescatore P, Scheiden R, Abeywickrama KH, Braun M, Capesius C. Evolution of colorectal cancer epidemiology in a setting of opportunistic screening. A 20 year national survey in Luxembourg. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2013;76(1):25–33.
Murphy CC, Singal AG, Baron JA, Sandler RS. Decrease in Incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer before recent increase. Gastroenterology. 2018;155(6):1716–9.
Siegel RL, Ward EM, Jemal A. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates in the United States by tumor location and stage, 1992–2008. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21(3):411–6.
Siegel RL, Medhanie GA, Fedewa SA, Jemal A. State variation in early-onset colorectal cancer in the United States, 1995–2015. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2019;111(10):1104–6.
Sung JJY, Chiu HM, Jung KW, Jun JK, Sekiguchi M, Matsuda T, et al. Increasing trend in young-onset colorectal cancer in Asia: more cancers in men and more rectal cancers. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019;114(2):322–9.
Rafiemanesh H, Pakzad R, Abedi M, Kor Y, Moludi J, Towhidi F, et al. Colorectal cancer in Iran: epidemiology and morphology trends. EXCLI J. 2016;15:738–44.
Sierra MS, Forman D. Burden of colorectal cancer in Central and South America. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;44(Suppl 1):S74–81.
Oliveira AG, Curado MP, Koechlin A, Oliveira JC, Silva DR. Incidence and mortality from colon and rectal cancer in Midwestern Brazil. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2016;19(4):779–90.
Palmieri G, Paliogiannis P, Scognamillo F, Budroni M, Cesaraccio R, Pulighe F, et al. Colorectal cancer epidemiology in an area with a spontaneous screening program. Acta Medica Mediterranea. 2013;29:231.
Paquette IM, Ying J, Shah SA, Abbott DE, Ho SM. African Americans should be screened at an earlier age for colorectal cancer. Gastrointest Endosc. 2015;82(5):878–83.
Reggiani-Bonetti L, Di Gregorio C, Pedroni M, Domati F, Barresi V, Marcheselli L, et al. Incidence trend of malignant polyps through the data of a specialized colorectal cancer registry: clinical features and effect of screening. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013;48(11):1294–301.
Nowicki A, Dahms S. Incidence, morbidity and 5-year survival of colorectal cancer patients in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship in 2005–2011, based on data from the National Health Fund. Pol Przegl Chir. 2018;90(4):1–8.
Phipps AI, Scoggins J, Rossing MA, Li CI, Newcomb PA. Temporal trends in incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer by tumor location: 1975–2007. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(9):1791–7.
Oppelt KA, Luttmann S, Kraywinkel K, Haug U. Incidence of advanced colorectal cancer in Germany: comparing claims data and cancer registry data. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2019;19(1):142.
Murphy CC, Wallace K, Sandler RS, Baron JA. Racial disparities in incidence of young-onset colorectal cancer and patient survival. Gastroenterology. 2019;156(4):958–65.
Innos K, Reima H, Baburin A, Paapsi K, Aareleid T, Soplepmann J. Subsite- and stage-specific colorectal cancer trends in Estonia prior to implementation of screening. Cancer Epidemiol. 2018;52:112–9.
Siegel R, Desantis C, Jemal A. Colorectal cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(2):104–17.
Sia CS, Paul E, Wale RJ, Lynch AC, Heriot AG, Warrier SK. No increase in colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: a Victorian experience from the last decade. Colorectal Dis. 2014;16(9):690–5.
Rejali M, Daneshi S, Hadipour M, Tavazohi H, Vardanjani HM. Temporal trends of incidence of colorectal cancer in Isfahan, Iran, 2000–2011. Int J Prev Med. 2018;9:22.
Sarakarn P, Suwanrungruang K, Vatanasapt P, Wiangnon S, Promthet S, Jenwitheesuk K, et al. Joinpoint analysis trends in the incidence of colorectal cancer in Khon Kaen, Thailand (1989–2012). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2017;18(4):1039–43.
Keum N, Giovannucci EL. Folic acid fortification and colorectal cancer risk. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46(3):S65–72.
Singh KE, Taylor TH, Pan CG, Stamos MJ, Zell JA. Colorectal cancer incidence among young adults in California. J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol. 2014;3(4):176–84.
Sjostrom O, Silander G, Syk I, Henriksson R, Melin B, Hellquist BN. Disparities in colorectal cancer between Northern and SouthernSweden - a report from the new RISK North database. Acta Oncol. 2018;57(12):1622–30.
Steinbrecher A, Fish K, Clarke CA, West DW, Gomez SL, Cheng I. Examining the association between socioeconomic status and invasive colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in California. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012;21(10):1814–22.
Stern MC, Zhang J, Lee E, Deapen D, Liu L. Disparities in colorectal cancer incidence among Latino subpopulations in California defined by country of origin. Cancer Causes Control. 2016;27(2):147–55.
Stock C, Pulte D, Haug U, Brenner H. Subsite-specific colorectal cancer risk in the colorectal endoscopy era. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;75(3):621–30.
Stromberg U, Peterson S, Holmen A, Holmberg E, Hultcrantz R, Martling A, et al. Rational targeting of population groups and residential areas for colorectal cancer screening. Cancer Epidemiol. 2019;60:23–30.
Sun M, Wang Y, Sundquist J, Sundquist K, Ji J. Temporal trends of sex disparity in incidence and survival of colorectal cancer: variations by anatomical site and age at diagnosis. Clin Epidemiol. 2020;12:73–81.
Tawadros PS, Paquette IM, Hanly AM, Mellgren AF, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD. Adenocarcinoma of the rectum in patients under age 40 is increasing: impact of signet-ring cell histology. Dis Colon Rectum. 2015;58(5):474–8.
Thirunavukarasu P, Sathaiah M, Singla S, Sukumar S, Karunamurthy A, Pragatheeshwar KD, et al. Medullary carcinoma of the large intestine: a population based analysis. Int J Oncol. 2010;37(4):901–7.
Thuraisingam R, Jandova J, Pandit V, Michailidou M, Nfonsam VN. Assessing the national trends in colon cancer among Native Americans: a 12 year SEER database study. Am J Surg. 2017;214(2):228–31.
Troeung L, Sodhi-Berry N, Martini A, Malacova E, Ee H, O’Leary P, et al. Increasing incidence of colorectal cancer in adolescents and young adults aged 15–39 years in Western Australia 1982–2007: examination of colonoscopy history. Front Public Health. 2017;5:179.
Ugarte MD, Etxeberria J, Goicoa T, Ardanaz E. Gender-specific spatio-temporal patterns of colorectal cancer incidence in Navarre, Spain (1990–2005). Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36(3):254–62.
Ullah MF, Fleming CA, Mealy K. Changing trends in age and stage of colorectal cancer presentation in Ireland - from the nineties to noughties and beyond. Surgeon. 2018;16(6):350–4.
Veruttipong D, Soliman AS, Gilbert SF, Blachley TS, Hablas A, Ramadan M, et al. Age distribution, polyps and rectal cancer in the Egyptian population-based cancer registry. World J Gastroenterol. 2012;18(30):3997–4003.
Wan Ibrahim NR, Chan HK, Soelar SA, Azmi AN, Mohd Said R, Abu Hassan MR. Incidence, clinico-demographic profiles and survival rates of colorectal cancer in Northern Malaysia: comparing patients above and below 50 years of age. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2020;21(4):1057–61.
Wang DY, Thrift AP, Zarrin-Khameh N, Wichmann A, Armstrong GN, Thompson PA, et al. Rising incidence of colorectal cancer among young hispanics in Texas. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2017;51(1):34–42.
Wang H, de MejiaGrubb MC, Gonzalez SJ, Sidani M, Ma J, Zoorob RJ. Temporal trends in colorectal cancer incidence among Asian American populations in the United States, 1994‐2013. Fam Med Commun Health. 2017;5(1):56–64.
Wang W, Chen W, Lin J, Shen Q, Zhou X, Lin C. Incidence and characteristics of young-onset colorectal cancer in the United States: an analysis of SEER data collected from 1988 to 2013. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2019;43(2):208–15.
Wen D, Zou W, Wen X, Yang Y, Chen Y, He Y, et al. Urban-rural disparity in colorectal cancer incidence and increasing trend in relation to socioeconomic development and urbanization in China. J Int Med Res. 2018;46(10):4181–96.
Wessler JD, Pashayan N, Greenberg DC, Duffy SW. Age-period-cohort analysis of colorectal cancer in East Anglia, 1971–2005. Cancer Epidemiol. 2010;34(3):232–7.
Wu H, Zhou P, Zhang W, Jiang Y, Liu XL, Zhang L, et al. Time trends of incidence and mortality in colorectal cancer in Changning District, Shanghai, 1975–2013. J Dig Dis. 2018;19(9):540–9.
Yee YK, Gu Q, Hung I, Tan VP, Chan P, Hsu A, et al. Trend of colorectal cancer in Hong Kong: 1983–2006. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;25(5):923–7.
Yeo H, Betel D, Abelson JS, Zheng XE, Yantiss R, Shah MA. Early-onset colorectal cancer is distinct from traditional colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2017;16(4):293–9.
Yoon M, Kim N, Nam B, Joo J, Ki M. Changing trends in colorectal cancer in the Republic of Korea: contrast with Japan. Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015038.
Young SW, Nishri ED, Candido E, Marrett LD. Colorectal cancer incidence in the Aboriginal population of Ontario, 1998 to 2009. Health Rep. 2015;26(4):3–9.
Zhabagin K, Igissinov N, Manambayeva Z, Adylkhanov T, Sandybayev M, Nurgazin M, et al. Temporal epidemiological assessment of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in East Kazakhstan, 2004–2013. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015;16(15):6413–6.
Zhang B, Xie SH, Yu IT. Differential incidence trends of colon and rectal cancers in Hong Kong: an age-period-cohort analysis. Cancer Commun (Lond). 2018;38(1):42.
Zheng ZX, Zheng RS, Zhang SW, Chen WQ. Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(19):8455–60.
Zhou Q, Li K, Lin GZ, Shen JC, Dong H, Gu YT, et al. Incidence trends and age distribution of colorectal cancer by subsite in Guangzhou, 2000–2011. Chin J Cancer. 2015;34(8):358–64.
Zhu C, Bassig BA, Zaridze D, Boyle P, Dai M, Li Q, et al. A birth cohort analysis of the incidence of ascending and descending colon cancer in the United States, 1973–2008. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24(6):1147–56.
Zorzi M, Dal Maso L, Francisci S, Buzzoni C, Rugge M, Guzzinati S, et al. Trends of colorectal cancer incidence and mortality rates from 2003 to 2014 in Italy. Tumori. 2019;105(5):417–26.
Zorzi M, Mangone L, Sassatelli R, Baracco S, Budroni M, Castaing M, et al. Incidence trends of colorectal cancer in the early 2000s in Italy. Figures from the IMPATTO study on colorectal cancer screening. Epidemiologia e prevenzione. 2015;39:115–25.
Ohri A, Robinson A, Liu B, Bhuket T, Wong R. Updated assessment of colorectal cancer incidence in the U.S. by Age, Sex, and race/ethnicity. Dig Dis Sci. 2020;65(6):1838–49.
Enayatrad M, Yavari P, Etemad K, Khodakarim S, Mahdavi S. Association of urbanization levels and colorectal cancer incidence in Iran. Int J Cancer Manag. 2018;11(8):e68476.
Surveillance Research Program, National Cancer Institute SEER*Stat software. https://seer.cancer.gov/seerstat.
SAS software® Release 9.4 SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA, 2013.
StataCorp. Stata statistical software: release 16. College Station, TX: StataCorp LLC; 2019.
Corp IBM, Released,. IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 27.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp; 2020.
Choi BCK, de Guia NA, Walsh P. Look before you leap: stratify before you standardize. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(12):1087–96.
Murphy CC, Yang YC. Use of age-period-cohort analysis in cancer epidemiology research. Curr Epidemiol Rep. 2018;5(4):418–31.
Ahmad O, Boschi-Pinto C, Lopez AD, Murray C, Lozano R, Inoue M. Age standardization of rates: a new WHO standard. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2001.
Pace M, Lanzieri G, Glickman M, Grande E, Zupanic T, Wojtyniak B, et al. Revision of the European Standard Population. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Papers. 2013.
Parkin D. Comparability and quality control in cancer registration. IARC Technical Report. 1994;19:18–9.
Bray FCM, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Zanetti R, Ferlay J. Cancer incidence in five continents, Vol.XI. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2021.
ICD Conversion Programs. Surveillance epidemiology and end results (SEER). 2021. http://seer.cancer.gov/tools/conversion/.
IARCcrgTools Conversion Programs. IARC; 2021. http://www.iacr.com.fr/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=72:iarccrgtools&catid=68&Itemid=445.
International Association of Cancer Registries. International rules for multiple primary cancers. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005;6(1):104–6.
D Redelings M, Sorvillo F, V Smith L, Greenland S. Why confidence intervals should be used in reporting studies of complete populations. Open Public Health J. 2012;5(1):52–4.
von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. PLoS Med. 2007;4(10):e296.