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  1. Data on survival endpoints are usually summarised using either hazard ratio, cumulative number of events, or median survival statistics. Network meta-analysis, an extension of traditional pairwise meta-analysi...

    Authors: Beth S Woods, Neil Hawkins and David A Scott
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:54
  2. To address three methodological challenges when attempting to measure patients' experiences and views of a system of inter-related health services rather than a single service: the feasibility of a population ...

    Authors: Alicia O'Cathain, Emma Knowles and Jon Nicholl
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:52
  3. The collection of individual-level pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza immunization data was considered important to facilitate optimal vaccine delivery and accurate assessment of vaccine coverage. These data are a...

    Authors: Jennifer A Pereira, Susan Quach, Christine Heidebrecht, Julie Foisy, Sherman Quan, Michael Finkelstein, Christopher A Sikora, Julie A Bettinger, David L Buckeridge, Anne McCarthy, Shelley Deeks and Jeffrey C Kwong
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:51
  4. Evidence suggests that survey response rates are decreasing and that the level of survey response can be influenced by questionnaire length and the use of pre-notification. The goal of the present investigatio...

    Authors: Timothy J Beebe, Enrique Rey, Jeanette Y Ziegenfuss, Sarah Jenkins, Kandace Lackore, Nicholas J Talley and Richard G Locke III
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:50
  5. Investigators designing clinical trials often use composite outcomes to overcome many statistical issues. Trialists want to maximize power to show a statistically significant treatment effect and avoid inflati...

    Authors: Janice Pogue, Lehana Thabane, PJ Devereaux and Salim Yusuf
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:49
  6. The capacity of multiple comparisons to produce false positive findings in genetic association studies is abundantly clear. To address this issue, the concept of false positive report probability (FPRP) measur...

    Authors: Rolf Weitkunat, Etienne Kaelin, Grégory Vuillaume and Gerd Kallischnigg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:47
  7. The purpose of the linguistic validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) was to produce a translated version in Malay language which was "conceptually equivalent" to the original U.S. English ...

    Authors: Ahmed Awaisu, Sulastri Samsudin, Nur A Amir, Che G Omar, Mohd I Hashim, Mohamed H Nik Mohamad, Asrul A Shafie and Mohamed A Hassali
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:46
  8. Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II) using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are ...

    Authors: Juan V Luciano, José L Ayuso-Mateos, Jaume Aguado, Ana Fernandez, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Miquel Roca and Josep M Haro
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:45
  9. The null hypothesis significance test (NHST) is the most frequently used statistical method, although its inferential validity has been widely criticized since its introduction. In 1988, the International Committ...

    Authors: Luis Carlos Silva-Ayçaguer, Patricio Suárez-Gil and Ana Fernández-Somoano
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:44
  10. Statistical tests of heterogeneity are very popular in meta-analyses, as heterogeneity might indicate subgroup effects. Lack of demonstrable statistical heterogeneity, however, might obscure clinical heterogen...

    Authors: Rolf HH Groenwold, Maroeska M Rovers, Jacobus Lubsen and Geert JMG van der Heijden
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:43
  11. Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin.

    Authors: Baiju R Shah, Maria Chiu, Shubarna Amin, Meera Ramani, Sharon Sadry and Jack V Tu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:42
  12. There is little robust evidence to test the policy assumption that housing-led area regeneration strategies will contribute to health improvement and reduce social inequalities in health. The GoWell Programme ...

    Authors: Matt Egan, Ade Kearns, Phil Mason, Carol Tannahill, Lyndal Bond, Jennie Coyle, Sheila Beck, Fiona Crawford, Phil Hanlon, Louise Lawson, Jennifer McLean, Mark Petticrew, Elena Sautkina, Hilary Thomson and David Walsh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:41
  13. In epidemiological studies, subjects are often followed for a period during which study outcomes are measured at selected time points, such as by diagnostic testing performed on biological samples collected at...

    Authors: Xiangrong Kong, Kellie J Archer, Lawrence H Moulton, Ronald H Gray and Mei-Cheng Wang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:40
  14. Infectious intestinal disease (IID), usually presenting as diarrhoea and vomiting, is frequently preventable. Though often mild and self-limiting, its commonness makes IID an important public health problem. I...

    Authors: Sarah J O'Brien, Greta Rait, Paul R Hunter, James J Gray, Frederick J Bolton, David S Tompkins, Jim McLauchlin, Louise H Letley, Goutam K Adak, John M Cowden, Meirion R Evans, Keith R Neal, Gillian E Smith, Brian Smyth, Clarence C Tam and Laura C Rodrigues
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:39
  15. Trials frequently encounter difficulties in recruitment, but evidence on effective recruitment methods in primary care is sparse. A robust test of recruitment methods involves comparing alternative methods usi...

    Authors: Jonathan Graffy, Peter Bower, Elaine Ward, Paul Wallace, Brendan Delaney, Ann-Louise Kinmonth, David Collier and Julia Miller
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:38
  16. The use of structural equation modeling and latent variables remains uncommon in epidemiology despite its potential usefulness. The latter was illustrated by studying cross-sectional and longitudinal relations...

    Authors: Michel Chavance, Sylvie Escolano, Monique Romon, Arnaud Basdevant, Blandine de Lauzon-Guillain and Marie Aline Charles
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:37
  17. Although aging is accompanied by diminished functioning, many elderly individuals preserve a sense of well-being. While the concept of "successful aging" has been popular for many decades, little is known abou...

    Authors: Maria E Lacruz, Rebecca T Emeny, Horst Bickel, Barbara Cramer, Alexander Kurz, Martin Bidlingmaier, Dorothea Huber, Günther Klug, Annette Peters and Karl H Ladwig
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:36
  18. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) research patients are usually recruited from clinical practice, memory clinics or nursing homes. Lack of standardised inclusion and diagnostic criteria is a major concern in current...

    Authors: Fred Andersen, Torgeir A Engstad, Bjørn Straume, Matti Viitanen, Dag S Halvorsen, Samuel Hykkerud and Kjell Sjøbrend
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:35
  19. The systematic review (SR) lies at the core of evidence-based medicine. While it may appear that the SR provides a reliable summary of existing evidence, standards of SR conduct differ. The objective of this r...

    Authors: Laura J Rosen, Michal Ben Noach and Elliot Rosenberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:34
  20. Survival analysis methods such as the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards regression (Cox regression) are commonly used to analyze data from randomized withdrawal studies in patien...

    Authors: Ichiro Arano, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Toshimitsu Hamasaki and Yuko Ohno
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:33
  21. In an agreement assay, it is of interest to evaluate the degree of agreement between the different methods (devices, instruments or observers) used to measure the same characteristic. We propose in this study ...

    Authors: Geòrgia Escaramís, Carlos Ascaso and Josep L Carrasco
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:31
  22. The systematic collection of high-quality mortality data is a prerequisite in designing relevant drowning prevention programmes. This descriptive study aimed to assess the quality (i.e., level of specificity) ...

    Authors: Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Philippe Lunetta and Sue Walker
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:30
  23. Asthma is a significant public health problem in the Caribbean. Prevalence surveys using standardized measures of asthma provide valid prevalence estimates to facilitate regional and international comparisons ...

    Authors: Eulalia K Kahwa, Novie O Younger, Yvonne B Wint, Norman K Waldron, Hermi H Hewitt, Jennifer M Knight-Madden, Kay A Bailey, Nancy C Edwards, Laurel R Talabere and Karen N Lewis-Bell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:29
  24. In recent years, electronic diaries are increasingly used in medical research and practice to investigate patients' processes and fluctuations in symptoms over time. To model dynamic dependence structures and ...

    Authors: Beate Wild, Michael Eichler, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Mechthild Hartmann, Stephan Zipfel and Wolfgang Herzog
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:28
  25. Traditional methods for analyzing clinical and epidemiological cohort study data have been focused on the first occurrence of a health outcome. However, in many situations, recurrent event data are frequently ...

    Authors: Jisheng Cui, Andrew Forbes, Adrienne Kirby, Ian Marschner, John Simes, David Hunt, Malcolm West and Andrew Tonkin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:27
  26. There is little empirical evidence regarding the generalisability of relative risk estimates from studies which have relatively low response rates or are of limited representativeness. The aim of this study wa...

    Authors: Nicole M Mealing, Emily Banks, Louisa R Jorm, David G Steel, Mark S Clements and Kris D Rogers
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:26
  27. Poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment has been a public health challenge associated with the treatment of HIV. Although different adherence-supporting interventions have been reported, their long term fea...

    Authors: Ayesha De Costa, Anita Shet, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Per Ashorn, Bo Eriksson, Lennart Bogg and Vinod K Diwan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:25
  28. Patients-Reported Outcomes (PRO) are increasingly used in clinical and epidemiological research. Two main types of analytical strategies can be found for these data: classical test theory (CTT) based on the ob...

    Authors: Véronique Sébille, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Tanguy Le Néel, Gildas Kubis, François Boyer, Francis Guillemin and Bruno Falissard
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:24
  29. The COSMIN checklist (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments) was developed in an international Delphi study to evaluate the methodological quality of studies on m...

    Authors: Lidwine B Mokkink, Caroline B Terwee, Dirk L Knol, Paul W Stratford, Jordi Alonso, Donald L Patrick, Lex M Bouter and Henrica CW de Vet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:22
  30. P values are the most commonly used tool to measure evidence against a hypothesis. Several attempts have been made to transform P values to minimum Bayes factors and minimum posterior probabilities of the hypoth...

    Authors: Leonhard Held
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:21
  31. The Cox model relies on the proportional hazards (PH) assumption, implying that the factors investigated have a constant impact on the hazard - or risk - over time. We emphasize the importance of this assumpti...

    Authors: Carine A Bellera, Gaëtan MacGrogan, Marc Debled, Christine Tunon de Lara, Véronique Brouste and Simone Mathoulin-Pélissier
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:20
  32. This article describes the data mining analysis of a clinical exposure study of 3585 adult smokers and 1077 nonsmokers. The analysis focused on developing models for four biomarkers of potential harm (BOPH): w...

    Authors: John H Warner, Qiwei Liang, Mohamadi Sarkar, Paul E Mendes and Hans J Roethig
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:19
  33. Antibodies directed against haemagglutinin, measured by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay are essential to protective immunity against influenza infection. An HI titre of 1:40 is generally accepted t...

    Authors: Laurent Coudeville, Fabrice Bailleux, Benjamin Riche, Françoise Megas, Philippe Andre and René Ecochard
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:18
  34. The success of a human intervention trial depends upon the ability to recruit eligible volunteers. Many trials fail because of unrealistic recruitment targets and flawed recruitment strategies. In order to pre...

    Authors: Sarah E Forster, Laura Jones, John M Saxton, Daniel J Flower, Gemma Foulds, Hilary J Powers, Stuart G Parker, A Graham Pockley and Elizabeth A Williams
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:17
  35. Linear mixed effects models (LMMs) are a common approach for analyzing longitudinal data in a variety of settings. Although LMMs may be applied to complex data structures, such as settings where mediators are ...

    Authors: Emily A Blood, Howard Cabral, Timothy Heeren and Debbie M Cheng
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:16
  36. Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique methodological and ethical challenges. Researchers conducting systematic reviews of CRTs (e.g., addressing methodological or ethical issues) require efficient el...

    Authors: Monica Taljaard, Jessie McGowan, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Jamie C Brehaut, Andrew McRae, Martin P Eccles and Allan Donner
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:15
  37. Functioning and disability are universal human experiences. However, our current understanding of functioning from a comprehensive perspective is limited. The development of the International Classification of...

    Authors: Markus Kalisch, Bernd AG Fellinghauer, Eva Grill, Marloes H Maathuis, Ulrich Mansmann, Peter Bühlmann and Gerold Stucki
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:14
  38. Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect...

    Authors: Linn Gjersing, John RM Caplehorn and Thomas Clausen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:13
  39. For the purposes of our research programme we needed a simple, reliable and validated method for allowing choice of a color in response to a series of questions. On reviewing the literature no such instrument ...

    Authors: Helen R Carruthers, Julie Morris, Nicholas Tarrier and Peter J Whorwell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:12
  40. Experts recommend formulating a structured research question to guide the research design. However, the basis for this recommendation has not been formally evaluated. The aim of this study was to examine if a ...

    Authors: Lorena P Rios, Chenglin Ye and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:11
  41. Primary prevention programmes are of increasing importance to reduce the impact of chronic diseases on the individual, institutional and societal level. However, most initiatives that develop and implement pri...

    Authors: Iris Pigeot, Stefaan De Henauw, Ronja Foraita, Ingeborg Jahn and Wolfgang Ahrens
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:10
  42. There is an increasing trend towards lower participation in questionnaire surveys. This reduces representativeness, increases costs and introduces particular challenges to longitudinal surveys, as researchers ...

    Authors: Marion Henderson, Daniel Wight, Catherine Nixon and Graham Hart
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:9
  43. Sampling in the absence of accurate or comprehensive information routinely poses logistical, ethical, and resource allocation challenges in social science, clinical, epidemiological, health service and populat...

    Authors: Melanie J Rock
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:8
  44. There is no consensus on the most appropriate approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies. Therefore a simulation study was performed to assess the effects of different missin...

    Authors: Andrea Marshall, Douglas G Altman, Patrick Royston and Roger L Holder
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:7
  45. African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to descri...

    Authors: Babalola Faseru, Lisa S Cox, Carrie A Bronars, Isaac Opole, Gregory A Reed, Matthew S Mayo, Jasjit S Ahluwalia and Kolawole S Okuyemi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:6
  46. Research into migration and health is often confronted with methodological challenges related to the identification of migrants in various settings. Furthermore, it is often difficult to reach an acceptable le...

    Authors: Maria Kristiansen, Amani Hassani and Allan Krasnik
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:4

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