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  1. Activity monitors (AM) are small, electronic devices used to quantify the amount and intensity of physical activity (PA). Unfortunately, it has been demonstrated that data loss that occurs when AMs are not wor...

    Authors: David R Paul, Matthew Kramer, Kim S Stote, Karen E Spears, Alanna J Moshfegh, David J Baer and William V Rumpler
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:38
  2. Self-reported medical history data are frequently used in epidemiological studies. Self-reported diagnoses may differ from medical record diagnoses due to poor patient-clinician communication, self-diagnosis i...

    Authors: Besa Smith, Laura K Chu, Tyler C Smith, Paul J Amoroso, Edward J Boyko, Tomoko I Hooper, Gary D Gackstetter and Margaret AK Ryan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:37
  3. Symptoms tend to occur in what have been called symptom clusters. Early symptom cluster research was imprecise regarding the causal foundations of the coordinations between specific symptoms, and was silent on...

    Authors: Karin Olson, Leslie Hayduk, Marilyn Cree, Ying Cui, Hue Quan, John Hanson, Peter Lawlor and Florian Strasser
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:36
  4. Previous research on educational data has demonstrated that Rasch fit statistics (mean squares and t-statistics) are highly susceptible to sample size variation for dichotomously scored rating data, although l...

    Authors: Adam B Smith, Robert Rush, Lesley J Fallowfield, Galina Velikova and Michael Sharpe
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:33
  5. Meta-analysis of continuous outcomes traditionally uses mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD; mean difference in pooled standard deviation (SD) units). We recently used an alternative rati...

    Authors: Jan O Friedrich, Neill KJ Adhikari and Joseph Beyene
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:32
  6. Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study met...

    Authors: Ajay Yesupriya, Evangelos Evangelou, Fotini K Kavvoura, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Melinda Clyne, Matthew C Walsh, Bruce K Lin, Wei Yu, Marta Gwinn, John PA Ioannidis and Muin J Khoury
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:31
  7. There is a growing trend towards the production of "hospital report-cards" in which hospitals with higher than acceptable mortality rates are identified. Several commentators have advocated for the use of Baye...

    Authors: Peter C Austin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:30
  8. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) technique is often used in longitudinal data modeling, where investigators are interested in population-averaged effects of covariates on responses of interest. GEE i...

    Authors: Adefowope Odueyungbo, Dillon Browne, Noori Akhtar-Danesh and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:28
  9. The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors ass...

    Authors: Lin T Guey, Evelyn J Bromet, Semyon F Gluzman, Victoria Zakhozha and Vlodomyr Paniotto
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:27
  10. Changes of health and quality-of-life in chronic conditions are mostly small and require specific and sensitive instruments. The aim of this study was to determine and compare responsiveness, i.e. the sensitiv...

    Authors: Felix Angst, Martin L Verra, Susanne Lehmann and André Aeschlimann
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:26
  11. Hospital-based discharge registries are used increasingly for longitudinal epidemiological studies of HIV. We examined completeness of registration of HIV infections and of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepati...

    Authors: Niels Obel, Hanne Reinholdt, Lars H Omland, Frederik Engsig, Henrik T Sørensen and Ann-Brit E Hansen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:25
  12. The within-subject coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation coefficient are commonly used to assess the reliability or reproducibility of interval-scale measurements. Comparison of reproducibility ...

    Authors: Mohamed M Shoukri, Dilek Colak, Namik Kaya and Allan Donner
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:24
  13. The analysis of non-fatal recurring events is frequently found in studies on chronic-degenerative diseases. The aim of this paper is to estimate the probability of readmission of patients with Chronic Obstruct...

    Authors: Nicola Bartolomeo, Paolo Trerotoli, Annamaria Moretti and Gabriella Serio
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:23
  14. Qualitative synthesis has become more commonplace in recent years. Meta-ethnography is one of several methods for synthesising qualitative research and is being used increasingly within health care research. H...

    Authors: Salla Atkins, Simon Lewin, Helen Smith, Mark Engel, Atle Fretheim and Jimmy Volmink
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:21
  15. Graphical displays of results allow researchers to summarise and communicate the key findings of their study. Diagnostic information should be presented in an easily interpretable way, which conveys both test ...

    Authors: Penny F Whiting, Jonathan AC Sterne, Marie E Westwood, Lucas M Bachmann, Roger Harbord, Matthias Egger and Jonathan J Deeks
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:20
  16. Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variabi...

    Authors: Niels C Moeller, Lars Korsholm, Peter L Kristensen, Lars B Andersen, Niels Wedderkopp and Karsten Froberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:19
  17. Published false positive research findings are a major problem in the process of scientific discovery. There is a high rate of lack of replication of results in clinical research in general, multiple sclerosis...

    Authors: Martin Daumer, Ulrike Held, Katja Ickstadt, Moritz Heinz, Siegfried Schach and George Ebers
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:18
  18. Non-participants can have a considerable influence on the external validity of a study. Therefore, we assessed the socio-demographic, health-related, and lifestyle behavioral differences between participants a...

    Authors: Jeroen Lakerveld, Wilhelmina IJzelenberg, Maurits W van Tulder, Irene M Hellemans, Jan A Rauwerda, Albert C van Rossum and Jaap C Seidell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:17
  19. Public health benefits from research often rely on the use of data from personal medical records. When neither patient consent nor anonymisation is possible, the case for accessing such records for research pu...

    Authors: Una Macleod and Graham CM Watt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:15
  20. As in any measurement process, a certain amount of error may be expected in routine population surveillance operations such as those in demographic surveillance sites (DSSs). Vital events are likely to be miss...

    Authors: Edward Fottrell, Peter Byass and Yemane Berhane
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:13
  21. Interim analysis of accumulating trial data is important to protect participant safety during randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) often undertake such analyses, but their wid...

    Authors: Puvan Tharmanathan, Melanie Calvert, John Hampton and Nick Freemantle
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:12
  22. When a therapy has been evaluated in the first clinical study, the outcome is often compared descriptively to outcomes in corresponding cohorts receiving other treatments. Such comparisons are often limited to...

    Authors: Harald J Hamre, Anja Glockmann, Wilfried Tröger, Gunver S Kienle and Helmut Kiene
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:11
  23. Little is known about the impact of data collection method on self-reported cancer screening behaviours, particularly among hard-to-reach populations. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of dat...

    Authors: Melissa A Clark, Michelle L Rogers, Gene F Armstrong, William Rakowski and Frederick J Kviz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:10
  24. It is usually preferable to model and estimate prevalence ratios instead of odds ratios in cross-sectional studies when diseases or injuries are not rare. Problems with existing methods of modeling prevalence ...

    Authors: Martin R Petersen and James A Deddens
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:9
  25. One attraction of meta-analysis is the forest plot, a compact overview of the essential data included in a systematic review and the overall 'result'. However, meta-analysis is not always suitable for synthesi...

    Authors: David Ogilvie, Debra Fayter, Mark Petticrew, Amanda Sowden, Sian Thomas, Margaret Whitehead and Gill Worthy
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:8
  26. A spectrum effect was defined as differences in the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test according to the patient's characteristics or disease features. A spectrum effect can lead to a spectrum bias...

    Authors: Caroline Elie and Joël Coste
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:7
  27. Malaria is a major public health problem in Malawi, however, quantifying its burden in a population is a challenge. Routine hospital data provide a proxy for measuring the incidence of severe malaria and for c...

    Authors: Lawrence N Kazembe, Tobias F Chirwa, Jupiter S Simbeye and Jimmy J Namangale
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:6
  28. Electronic monitoring (EM) is used increasingly to measure medication non-adherence. Unbiased EM assessment requires fulfillment of assumptions. The purpose of this study was to determine assumptions needed fo...

    Authors: Kris Denhaerynck, Petra Schäfer-Keller, James Young, Jürg Steiger, Andreas Bock and Sabina De Geest
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:5
  29. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely applied, although the evidence base is weak. Previous reviews on medical interventions have shown that conclusions based on published data alone may no longer h...

    Authors: Frank Peinemann, Natalie McGauran, Stefan Sauerland and Stefan Lange
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:4
  30. Missing data may bias the results of clinical trials and other studies. This study describes the response rate, questionnaire responses and financial costs associated with offering participants from a multilin...

    Authors: Elizabeth Dormandy, Katrina Brown, Erin P Reid and Theresa M Marteau
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:2
  31. We have previously described a method for dealing with missing data in a prospective cardiac registry initiative. The method involves merging registry data to corresponding ICD-9-CM administrative data to fill...

    Authors: Danielle A Southern, Colleen M Norris, Hude Quan, Fiona M Shrive, P Diane Galbraith, Karin Humphries, Min Gao, Merril L Knudtson and William A Ghali
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:1
  32. Incidence and lifetime risk of diabetes are important public health measures. Traditionally, nonparametric estimates are obtained from survey data by means of a Nelson-Aalen estimator which requires data infor...

    Authors: Henrik Støvring and Mei-Cheng Wang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:53
  33. The criteria for stopping Delphi studies are often subjective. This study aimed to examine whether consensus and stability in the Delphi process can be ascertained by descriptive evaluation of trends in partic...

    Authors: Elizabeth A Holey, Jennifer L Feeley, John Dixon and Vicki J Whittaker
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:52
  34. Low response and reporting errors are major concerns for survey epidemiologists. However, while nonresponse is commonly investigated, the effects of misclassification are often ignored, possibly because they a...

    Authors: A Rosemary Tate, Margaret Jones, Lisa Hull, Nicola T Fear, Roberto Rona, Simon Wessely and Matthew Hotopf
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:51
  35. The most commonly used survey methods are self-administered questionnaires, telephone interviews, and a mixture of both. But until now evidence out of randomised controlled trials as to whether patient respons...

    Authors: Margitta Lungenhausen, Stefan Lange, Christoph Maier, Claudia Schaub, Hans J Trampisch and Heinz G Endres
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:50
  36. Although there have been reported benefits of health education interventions across various health issues, the key to program effectiveness is participation and retention. Unfortunately, not everyone is willin...

    Authors: Enza Gucciardi, Jill I Cameron, Chen Di Liao, Alison Palmer and Donna E Stewart
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:47
  37. The lack of robust systems for monitoring quality in healthcare has been highlighted. Statistical process control (SPC) methods, utilizing the increasingly available routinely collected electronic patient reco...

    Authors: Thabani Sibanda and Nokuthaba Sibanda
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:46
  38. Birth weight and length have seasonal fluctuations. Previous analyses of birth weight by latitude effects identified seemingly contradictory results, showing both 6 and 12 monthly periodicities in weight. The ...

    Authors: John McGrath, Adrian Barnett, Darryl Eyles, Thomas Burne, Carsten B Pedersen and Preben Bo Mortensen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:45
  39. In an effort to identify previously unrecognized aspects of editorial decision-making, we explored the words and phrases that one group of editors used during their meetings.

    Authors: Kay Dickersin, Elizabeth Ssemanda, Catherine Mansell and Drummond Rennie
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:44
  40. Disorders related to pregnancy and childbirth are a major health issue in South East Asia. They represent one of the biggest health risk differentials between the developed and developing world. Our broad rese...

    Authors: David J Henderson-Smart, Pisake Lumbiganon, Mario R Festin, Jacqueline J Ho, Hakimi Mohammad, Steve J McDonald, Sally Green and Caroline A Crowther
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:43
  41. Recruiting and retaining GPs for research can prove difficult, and may result in sub-optimal patient participation where GPs are required to recruit patients. Low participation rates may affect the validity of...

    Authors: Michelle K Williamson, Jane Pirkis, Jon J Pfaff, Orla Tyson, Moira Sim, Ngaire Kerse, Nicola T Lautenschlager, Nigel P Stocks and Osvaldo P Almeida
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2007 7:42

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