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  1. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important cause of acquired disability. In evaluating the effectiveness of clinical interventions for TBI it is important to measure disability accurately. The Glasgow Outcom...

    Authors: Pablo Perel, Phil Edwards, Haleema Shakur and Ian Roberts
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:72
  2. Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing becau...

    Authors: Joanne O'Toole, Martha Sinclair and Karin Leder
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:71
  3. The objective of most biomedical research is to determine an unbiased estimate of effect for an exposure on an outcome, i.e. to make causal inferences about the exposure. Recent developments in epidemiology ha...

    Authors: Ian Shrier and Robert W Platt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:70
  4. In population studies, body mass index (BMI) is generally calculated from self-reported body weight and height. The self-report of these anthropometrics is known to be biased, resulting in a misclassification ...

    Authors: Johanna C Dekkers, Marieke F van Wier, Ingrid JM Hendriksen, Jos WR Twisk and Willem van Mechelen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:69
  5. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression may be useful to summarize the HIV genotypic information. Without pre-selection each mutation presented in at least one patient is c...

    Authors: Linda Wittkop, Daniel Commenges, Isabelle Pellegrin, Dominique Breilh, Didier Neau, Denis Lacoste, Jean-Luc Pellegrin, Geneviève Chêne, François Dabis and Rodolphe Thiébaut
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:68
  6. Edwards's method is a widely used approach for fitting a sine curve to a time-series of monthly frequencies. From this fitted curve, estimates of the seasonal intensity of occurrence (i.e., peak-to-low ratio o...

    Authors: M Alan Brookhart and Kenneth J Rothman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:67
  7. Database systems have been developed to store data from large medical trials and survey studies. However, a reliable data storage system does not guarantee data entering reliability.

    Authors: Davide Mauri, Vasiliki Karampoiki, Jacopo Mauri, Konstantinos Kamposioras, Georgios Alexiou, Georgios Ferentinos, Lamprini Tsali, Ioanna Karathanasi and Christina Peponi
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:66
  8. Within cluster randomized trials no algorithms exist to generate a full enumeration of a block randomization, balancing for covariates across treatment arms. Furthermore, often for practical reasons multiple b...

    Authors: Ben R Carter and Kerenza Hood
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:65
  9. The incidence of Type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide and diabetes is four times more common among ethnic minority groups than among the general Caucasian population. This study reflects on the specific iss...

    Authors: SM Choudhury, S Brophy, MA Fareedi, B Zaman, P Ahmed and DRR Williams
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:64
  10. There is no standardized method for the assessment of physical activity (PA). Therefore it is important to investigate the validity and comparability of different measures. The International Physical Activity ...

    Authors: Nanna Kurtze, Vegar Rangul and Bo-Egil Hustvedt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:63
  11. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is hyper-endemic in injecting drug users. There is also excess HCV among non-injection drug users who smoke, snort, or sniff heroin, cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine.

    Authors: Rebecca K Stern, Holly Hagan, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Don Des Jarlais, Roberta Scheinmann, Shiela Strauss, Enrique R Pouget and Peter Flom
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:62
  12. Studies have shown that industry-sponsored meta-analyses of drugs lack scientific rigour and have biased conclusions. However, these studies have been restricted to certain medical specialities. We compared al...

    Authors: Anders W Jørgensen, Katja L Maric, Britta Tendal, Annesofie Faurschou and Peter C Gøtzsche
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:60
  13. Body mass index (BMI) data usually have skewed distributions, for which common statistical modeling approaches such as simple linear or logistic regression have limitations.

    Authors: Andreas Beyerlein, Ludwig Fahrmeir, Ulrich Mansmann and André M Toschke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:59
  14. The beta-binomial model is one of the methods that can be used to validly combine event rates from overdispersed binomial data. Our objective is to provide a full description of this method and to update and b...

    Authors: Yinong Young-Xu and K Arnold Chan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:58
  15. Some populations targeted in survey research can be hard to reach, either because of lack of contact information, or non-existent databases to inform sampling. Here, we present a methodological "case-report" o...

    Authors: Danielle A Southern, Steven Lewis, Colleen J Maxwell, James R Dunn, Tom W Noseworthy, Gail Corbett, Karen Thomas and William A Ghali
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:57
  16. Measurement of socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course in population health surveillance systems is important for examining differences in health and illness between different population groups and f...

    Authors: Catherine R Chittleborough, Anne W Taylor, Fran E Baum and Janet E Hiller
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:54
  17. This paper focuses on measuring the efficiency and effectiveness of two diagramming methods employed in key informant interviews with clinicians and health care administrators. The two methods are 'participato...

    Authors: Muriah J Umoquit, Mark J Dobrow, Louise Lemieux-Charles, Paul G Ritvo, David R Urbach and Walter P Wodchis
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:53
  18. Regression to the mean (RTM) occurs in situations of repeated measurements when extreme values are followed by measurements in the same subjects that are closer to the mean of the basic population. In uncontro...

    Authors: Thomas Ostermann, Stefan N Willich and Rainer Lüdtke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:52
  19. Preventive drugs require long-term trials to show their effectiveness or harms and often a lot of changes occur during post-marketing studies. The purpose of this article is to describe the research process in...

    Authors: Sirpa-Liisa Hovi, Piret Veerus, Mati Rahu and Elina Hemminki
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:51
  20. Vignette studies of medical choice and judgement have gained popularity in the medical literature. Originally developed in mathematical psychology they can be used to evaluate physicians' behaviour in the sett...

    Authors: Lucas M Bachmann, Andrea Mühleisen, Annekatrin Bock, Gerben ter Riet, Ulrike Held and Alfons GH Kessels
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:50
  21. Investigators are actively testing interventions intended to increase lifespan and wish to test whether the interventions increase maximum lifespan. Based on the fact that one cannot be assured of observing po...

    Authors: Guimin Gao, Wen Wan, Sijian Zhang, David T Redden and David B Allison
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:49
  22. Despite its benefits, it is uncommon to apply the nested case-control design in diagnostic research. We aim to show advantages of this design for diagnostic accuracy studies.

    Authors: Cornelis J Biesheuvel, Yvonne Vergouwe, Ruud Oudega, Arno W Hoes, Diederick E Grobbee and Karel GM Moons
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:48
  23. To create and find accurate and reliable instruments for the measurement of physical activity has been a challenge in epidemiological studies. We investigated the reliability and validity of two different phys...

    Authors: Vegar Rangul, Turid Lingaas Holmen, Nanna Kurtze, Koenraad Cuypers and Kristian Midthjell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:47
  24. In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research...

    Authors: Helen J Smith, Jing Chen and Xiaoyun Liu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:44
  25. The main objective of this paper is to compare different methods for predicting the levels of SO2 air pollution in oil and gas producing area of rural western Canada. Month-long average air quality measurements w...

    Authors: Igor Burstyn, Nicola M Cherry, Yutaka Yasui and Hyang-Mi Kim
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:43
  26. Self-administered questionnaires are becoming increasingly common in general practice. Much research has explored methods to increase response rates but comparatively few studies have explored the effect of qu...

    Authors: James A Desborough, Peter Butters, Debi Bhattacharya, Richard C Holland and David J Wright
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:42
  27. Primary study selection between systematic reviews is inconsistent, and reviews on the same topic may reach different conclusions. Our main objective was to compare systematic reviews on negative pressure woun...

    Authors: Frank Peinemann, Natalie McGauran, Stefan Sauerland and Stefan Lange
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:41
  28. Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of) stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety in...

    Authors: Ole Olsen, Karen Albertsen, Martin Lindhardt Nielsen, Kjeld Børge Poulsen, Sisse Malene Frydendal Gron and Hans Lennart Brunnberg
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:39
  29. Activity monitors (AM) are small, electronic devices used to quantify the amount and intensity of physical activity (PA). Unfortunately, it has been demonstrated that data loss that occurs when AMs are not wor...

    Authors: David R Paul, Matthew Kramer, Kim S Stote, Karen E Spears, Alanna J Moshfegh, David J Baer and William V Rumpler
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:38
  30. Self-reported medical history data are frequently used in epidemiological studies. Self-reported diagnoses may differ from medical record diagnoses due to poor patient-clinician communication, self-diagnosis i...

    Authors: Besa Smith, Laura K Chu, Tyler C Smith, Paul J Amoroso, Edward J Boyko, Tomoko I Hooper, Gary D Gackstetter and Margaret AK Ryan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:37
  31. Symptoms tend to occur in what have been called symptom clusters. Early symptom cluster research was imprecise regarding the causal foundations of the coordinations between specific symptoms, and was silent on...

    Authors: Karin Olson, Leslie Hayduk, Marilyn Cree, Ying Cui, Hue Quan, John Hanson, Peter Lawlor and Florian Strasser
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:36
  32. Previous research on educational data has demonstrated that Rasch fit statistics (mean squares and t-statistics) are highly susceptible to sample size variation for dichotomously scored rating data, although l...

    Authors: Adam B Smith, Robert Rush, Lesley J Fallowfield, Galina Velikova and Michael Sharpe
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:33
  33. Meta-analysis of continuous outcomes traditionally uses mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD; mean difference in pooled standard deviation (SD) units). We recently used an alternative rati...

    Authors: Jan O Friedrich, Neill KJ Adhikari and Joseph Beyene
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:32
  34. Several thousand human genome epidemiology association studies are published every year investigating the relationship between common genetic variants and diverse phenotypes. Transparent reporting of study met...

    Authors: Ajay Yesupriya, Evangelos Evangelou, Fotini K Kavvoura, Nikolaos A Patsopoulos, Melinda Clyne, Matthew C Walsh, Bruce K Lin, Wei Yu, Marta Gwinn, John PA Ioannidis and Muin J Khoury
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:31
  35. There is a growing trend towards the production of "hospital report-cards" in which hospitals with higher than acceptable mortality rates are identified. Several commentators have advocated for the use of Baye...

    Authors: Peter C Austin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:30
  36. The generalized estimating equations (GEE) technique is often used in longitudinal data modeling, where investigators are interested in population-averaged effects of covariates on responses of interest. GEE i...

    Authors: Adefowope Odueyungbo, Dillon Browne, Noori Akhtar-Danesh and Lehana Thabane
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:28
  37. The determinants of participation in long-term follow-up studies of disasters have rarely been delineated. Even less is known from studies of events that occurred in eastern Europe. We examined the factors ass...

    Authors: Lin T Guey, Evelyn J Bromet, Semyon F Gluzman, Victoria Zakhozha and Vlodomyr Paniotto
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:27
  38. Changes of health and quality-of-life in chronic conditions are mostly small and require specific and sensitive instruments. The aim of this study was to determine and compare responsiveness, i.e. the sensitiv...

    Authors: Felix Angst, Martin L Verra, Susanne Lehmann and André Aeschlimann
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:26
  39. Hospital-based discharge registries are used increasingly for longitudinal epidemiological studies of HIV. We examined completeness of registration of HIV infections and of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepati...

    Authors: Niels Obel, Hanne Reinholdt, Lars H Omland, Frederik Engsig, Henrik T Sørensen and Ann-Brit E Hansen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:25
  40. The within-subject coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation coefficient are commonly used to assess the reliability or reproducibility of interval-scale measurements. Comparison of reproducibility ...

    Authors: Mohamed M Shoukri, Dilek Colak, Namik Kaya and Allan Donner
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008 8:24

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