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  1. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-rater agreement between reviewers on the quality of abstract submissions to an annual national scientific meeting (Canadian Association of Emergency Physici...

    Authors: Brian H Rowe, Trevor L Strome, Carol Spooner, Sandra Blitz, Eric Grafstein and Andrew Worster
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:14
  2. Structural equation modelling (SEM) has been increasingly used in medical statistics for solving a system of related regression equations. However, a great obstacle for its wider use has been its difficulty in...

    Authors: Emil Kupek
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:13
  3. In January 2003, STAndards for the Reporting of Diagnostic accuracy studies (STARD) were published in a number of journals, to improve the quality of reporting in diagnostic accuracy studies. We designed a stu...

    Authors: Nynke Smidt, Anne WS Rutjes, Daniëlle AWM van der Windt, Raymond WJG Ostelo, Patrick M Bossuyt, Johannes B Reitsma, Lex M Bouter and Henrica CW de Vet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:12
  4. Minimisation can be used within treatment trials to ensure that prognostic factors are evenly distributed between treatment groups. The technique is relatively straightforward to apply but does require running...

    Authors: Angie Wade, Huiqi Pan, Simon Eaton, Agostino Pierro and Evelyn Ong
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:11
  5. A quality assessment tool for diagnostic accuracy studies, named QUADAS, has recently been developed. Although QUADAS has been used in several systematic reviews, it has not been formally validated. The object...

    Authors: Penny F Whiting, Marie E Weswood, Anne WS Rutjes, Johannes B Reitsma, Patrick NM Bossuyt and Jos Kleijnen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:9
  6. Modern day clinical practice demands evidence justifying our choice of treatment methods. Cumulative sum techniques (cusum) are amongst the simplest statistical methods known. They provide rapid analysis and i...

    Authors: Winston R Chang and Ian P McLean
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:8
  7. Most electronic search efforts directed at identifying primary studies for inclusion in systematic reviews rely on the optimal Boolean search features of search interfaces such as DIALOG® and Ovid™. Our objective...

    Authors: Margaret Sampson, Nicholas J Barrowman, David Moher, Tammy J Clifford, Robert W Platt, Andra Morrison, Terry P Klassen and Li Zhang
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:7
  8. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) is widely used for health surveys. The advantages of CATI over face-to-face interviewing are timeliness and cost reduction to achieve the same sample size and ge...

    Authors: Baohui Yang and Margo Eyeson-Annan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:6
  9. Postal self-completion questionnaires offer one of the least expensive modes of collecting patient based outcomes in health care research. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy of methods of inc...

    Authors: Rachel A Nakash, Jane L Hutton, Ellen C Jørstad-Stein, Simon Gates and Sarah E Lamb
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:5
  10. PubMed is the most widely used method for searches of the medical literature, but fails to identify many relevant articles. Electronic citation tracking offers an alternative search method.

    Authors: Hannah Kuper, Amanda Nicholson and Harry Hemingway
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:4
  11. Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and constr...

    Authors: LB Mokkink, CB Terwee, DL Knol, PW Stratford, J Alonso, DL Patrick, LM Bouter and HCW de Vet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:2
  12. In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD), however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequa...

    Authors: Peyman Jafari, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi and Javad Behboodian
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:1
  13. Delphi surveys with panels of experts in a particular area of interest have been widely utilized in the fields of clinical medicine, nursing practice, medical education and healthcare services. Despite this wi...

    Authors: Ralitsa B Akins, Homer Tolson and Bryan R Cole
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:37
  14. Postal questionnaires are widely used to collect outcome data on participants. However, a poor response to questionnaires will reduce the statistical power of the study and may introduce bias. A meta analysis ...

    Authors: Sarah Cockayne and David J Torgerson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:34
  15. Cochrane systematic reviews aim to provide readers with the most up-to-date evidence on the effects of healthcare interventions. The policy of updating Cochrane reviews every two years consumes valuable time a...

    Authors: Simon D French, Steve McDonald, Joanne E McKenzie and Sally E Green
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:33
  16. Rating scales like the visual analogue scale, VAS, and the verbal rating scale, VRS, are often used for pain assessments both in clinical work and in research, despite the lack of a gold standard. Interchangea...

    Authors: Iréne Lund, Thomas Lundeberg, Louise Sandberg, Cecilia Norrbrink Budh, Jan Kowalski and Elisabeth Svensson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:31
  17. Adaptive designs are becoming increasingly important in clinical research. One approach subdivides the study into several (two or more) stages and combines the p-values of the different stages using Fisher's comb...

    Authors: Markus Neuhäuser and Frank Bretz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:30
  18. For analyzing a repeated ordinal response, it is common to use a multivariate cumulative logit model. This model may fit poorly, especially when a nonsymmetric response is available. In these cases, alternativ...

    Authors: Farid Zayeri, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Navid Khanafshar and Fatemeh Nayeri
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:29
  19. This study assessed the application of the Total Design Method (TDM) in a mail survey of Japanese dentists. The TDM was chosen because survey response rates in Japan are unacceptably low and the TDM had previo...

    Authors: Yukie Nakai, Peter Milgrom, Toshiko Yoshida, Chikako Ishihara and Tsutomu Shimono
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:27
  20. Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvem...

    Authors: Harald Walach, Catarina Sadaghiani, Cornelia Dehm and Dick Bierman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:26
  21. Systematic reviewers seek to comprehensively search for relevant studies and summarize these to present the most valid estimate of intervention effectiveness. The more resources searched, the higher the yield,...

    Authors: Ellen T Crumley, Natasha Wiebe, Kristie Cramer, Terry P Klassen and Lisa Hartling
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:24
  22. It is generally believed that exhaustive searches of bibliographic databases are needed for systematic reviews of health care interventions. The CENTRAL database of controlled trials (RCTs) has been built up b...

    Authors: Pamela Royle and Norman Waugh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:23
  23. In order to detect potential disease clusters where a putative source cannot be specified, classical procedures scan the geographical area with circular windows through a specified grid imposed to the map. How...

    Authors: Jean Gaudart, Belco Poudiougou, Stéphane Ranque and Ogobara Doumbo
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:22
  24. Prediction intervals can be calculated for predicting cancer incidence on the basis of a statistical model. These intervals include the uncertainty of the parameter estimates and variations in future rates but...

    Authors: Bjørn Møller, Harald Weedon-Fekjær and Tor Haldorsen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:21
  25. Concerns have been raised about low participation rates of people from minority ethnic groups in clinical trials. However, the evidence is unclear as many studies do not report the ethnicity of participants an...

    Authors: Kate Jolly, Gregory Y Lip, Rod S Taylor, Jonathan W Mant, Deirdre A Lane, Kaeng W Lee and Andrew J Stevens
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:18
  26. Outcomes collected in randomized clinical trials are observations of random variables that should be independent and identically distributed. However, in some trials, the patients are randomized more than once...

    Authors: Iztok Hozo, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Otavio Clark and Gary H Lyman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:17
  27. The interest of patients in participating in randomized clinical trials involving treatments has been widely studied, but there has been much less research on interest in preventive trials. The objective of th...

    Authors: Sirpa-Liisa Hovi, Matti Hakama, Piret Veerus, Mati Rahu and Elina Hemminki
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:12
  28. Adequate participant recruitment is vital to the conduct of a clinical trial. Projected recruitment rates are often over-estimated, and the time to recruit the target population (accrual period) is often under...

    Authors: Rickey E Carter, Susan C Sonne and Kathleen T Brady
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:11
  29. Cluster randomised trials can be susceptible to a range of methodological problems. These problems are not commonly recognised by many researchers. In this paper we discuss the issues that can lead to bias in ...

    Authors: Seokyung Hahn, Suezann Puffer, David J Torgerson and Judith Watson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:10
  30. To adequately assess individual studies and synthesize quantitative research on weight loss studies, transparent reporting of data is required. The authors examined the reporting quality of randomized trials i...

    Authors: Cheryl A Gibson, Erik P Kirk, James D LeCheminant, Bruce W Bailey Jr, Guoyuan Huang and Joseph E Donnelly
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:9
  31. To determine if the search technique that is used to sample randomized controlled trial (RCT) manuscripts from a field of medical science can influence the measurement of the change in quality over time in tha...

    Authors: Mark K Borsody and Chisa Yamada
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:7
  32. Failure to be comprehensive can distort the results of a systematic review. Conversely, extensive searches may yield unmanageable number of citations of which only few may be relevant. Knowledge of usefulness ...

    Authors: Ana P Betrán, Lale Say, A Metin Gülmezoglu, Tomas Allen and Lynn Hampson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:6
  33. Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control appro...

    Authors: Vidal Essebag, Robert W Platt, Michal Abrahamowicz and Louise Pilote
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:5
  34. There is analytical potential for multiple cause of death data collected from death certificates. This study examines relationships of multiple causes of death as a function of factors available on the death c...

    Authors: Melanie M Wall, Jinzhou Huang, John Oswald and Diane McCullen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:4
  35. In 2003, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a guidance document on the scope of "Part 11" enforcement. In this guidance document, the FDA indicates an expectation of a risk-based app...

    Authors: Rickey E Carter
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:3
  36. Methodological research to support searching for those doing systematic reviews of epidemiological studies is a relatively neglected area. Our aim was to determine how many databases it is necessary to search ...

    Authors: Pamela Royle, Lynda Bain and Norman Waugh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:2

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