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  1. In research, diagrams are most commonly used in the analysis of data and visual presentation of results. However there has been a substantial growth in the use of diagrams in earlier stages of the research pro...

    Authors: Muriah J Umoquit, Peggy Tso, Helen ED Burchett and Mark J Dobrow
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:11
  2. Randomised controlled trials have investigated aspects of postal survey design yet cannot elaborate on reasons behind participants' decision making and survey behaviour. This paper reports participants' perspe...

    Authors: Helen Harcombe, Sarah Derrett, Peter Herbison and David McBride
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:8
  3. Data on lifetime exposures are often self-reported in epidemiologic studies, sometimes many years after the relevant age. Validity of self-reported data is usually inferred from their agreement with measured v...

    Authors: Benjamin J Cairns, Bette Liu, Suzanne Clennell, Rachel Cooper, Gillian K Reeves, Valerie Beral and Diana Kuh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:7
  4. Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perc...

    Authors: Lina Wahlgren and Peter Schantz
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:6
  5. Recruiting large and representative samples of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors is important for gaining accurate data regarding the prevalence of unmet needs in this population. This study ai...

    Authors: Tara Clinton-McHarg, Mariko Carey, Rob Sanson-Fisher and Elizabeth Tracey
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:5
  6. We investigate methods used to analyse the results of clinical trials with survival outcomes in which some patients switch from their allocated treatment to another trial treatment. These included simple metho...

    Authors: James P Morden, Paul C Lambert, Nicholas Latimer, Keith R Abrams and Allan J Wailoo
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:4
  7. Reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders have reported large pre- to post-treatment within-group effect sizes on measures of anxiety when supp...

    Authors: Joakim Ekberg, Toomas Timpka, Magnus Bång, Anders Fröberg, Karin Halje and Henrik Eriksson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:3
  8. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with complications of pregnancy that implicate fetal hypoxia (FH); the excess of ASD in male gender is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that risk of AS...

    Authors: Igor Burstyn, Xiaoming Wang, Yutaka Yasui, Fortune Sithole and Lonnie Zwaigenbaum
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:2
  9. Previous studies have proposed a simple product-based estimator for calculating exposure-specific risks (ESR), but the methodology has not been rigorously evaluated. The goal of our study was to evaluate the e...

    Authors: William M Reichmann, David Gagnon, C Robert Horsburgh and Elena Losina
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2011 11:1
  10. The appropriate handling of missing covariate data in prognostic modelling studies is yet to be conclusively determined. A resampling study was performed to investigate the effects of different missing data me...

    Authors: Andrea Marshall, Douglas G Altman and Roger L Holder
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:112
  11. Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to me...

    Authors: Tom G Briffa, Frank M Sanfilippo, Michael ST Hobbs, Stephen C Ridout, Judy M Katzenellenbogen, Peter L Thompson and Sandra C Thompson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:111
  12. The purpose of this study was to explore women's views of the design of a large pragmatic cost-effectiveness randomised controlled trial of the policy of offering a health professional-delivered intervention t...

    Authors: Lindsay JL Forbes, Carol McNaughton Nicholls, Louise Linsell, Jenny Graham, Charlotte Tompkins and Amanda J Ramirez
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:110
  13. While some research has been conducted examining recruitment methods to engage physicians and practices in primary care research, further research is needed on recruitment methodology as it remains a recurrent...

    Authors: Sharon Johnston, Clare Liddy, William Hogg, Melissa Donskov, Grant Russell and Elizabeth Gyorfi-Dyke
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:109
  14. Automatic variable selection methods are usually discouraged in medical research although we believe they might be valuable for studies where subject matter knowledge is limited. Bayesian model averaging may b...

    Authors: Anna Genell, Szilard Nemes, Gunnar Steineck and Paul W Dickman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:108
  15. Gene-environment interactions are likely to explain some of the heterogeneity in childhood asthma. Here, we describe the methodology and experiences in establishing a database for childhood asthma designed to ...

    Authors: Stephen W Turner, Jon G Ayres, Tatiana V Macfarlane, Anil Mehta, Gita Mehta, Colin N Palmer, Steve Cunningham, Tim Adams, Krishnan Aniruddhan, Claire Bell, Donna Corrigan, Jason Cunningham, Andrew Duncan, Gerard Hunt, Richard Leece, Una MacFadyen…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:107
  16. Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCC...

    Authors: Corina Schuster, Sabine Hahn and Thierry Ettlin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:106
  17. Self-monitoring is increasingly recommended as a method of managing cardiovascular disease. However, the design, implementation and reproducibility of the self-monitoring interventions appear to vary considera...

    Authors: Alison M Ward, Carl Heneghan, Rafael Perera, Dan Lasserson, David Nunan, David Mant and Paul Glasziou
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:105
  18. This study carried out to develop a scale for assessing diabetic patients' perceptions about physical activity and to test its psychometric properties (The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients...

    Authors: Zeinab Ghazanfari, Shamsaddin Niknami, Fazlollah Ghofranipour, Ebrahim Hajizadeh and Ali Montazeri
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:104
  19. Although the general statistical advice is to keep continuous exposure variables as continuous in statistical analyses, categorisation is still a common approach in medical research. In a recent paper from the...

    Authors: Kathrine F Frøslie, Jo Røislien, Petter Laake, Tore Henriksen, Elisabeth Qvigstad and Marit B Veierød
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:103
  20. Anthropometric measurements are a non invasive, inexpensive, and suitable method for evaluating the nutritional status in population studies with relatively large sample sizes. However, anthropometric techniqu...

    Authors: Maryline Sicotte, Marielle Ledoux, Maria-Victoria Zunzunegui, Souleymane Ag Aboubacrine and Vinh-Kim Nguyen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:102
  21. High accrual to clinical trials enables new treatment strategies to be tested rapidly, accurately and with generalisability. Ethical standards also must be high so that participation is voluntary and informed....

    Authors: Lucie MT Byrne-Davis, Peter Salmon, Katja Gravenhorst, Tim OB Eden and Bridget Young
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:101
  22. Childhood obesity is associated with the early development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Unfortunately, to date, traditional methods of research have failed to identify effect...

    Authors: Matthew A Sabin, Susan L Clemens, Richard Saffery, Zoe McCallum, Michele W Campbell, Wieland Kiess, Nancy A Crimmins, Jessica G Woo, Gary M Leong, George A Werther, Obioha C Ukoumunne and Melissa A Wake
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:100
  23. Nonresponse bias in a longitudinal study could affect the magnitude and direction of measures of association. We identified sociodemographic, behavioral, military, and health-related predictors of response to ...

    Authors: Alyson J Littman, Edward J Boyko, Isabel G Jacobson, Jaime Horton, Gary D Gackstetter, Besa Smith, Tomoko Hooper, Timothy S Wells, Paul J Amoroso and Tyler C Smith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:99
  24. The physiological responses to hypoxaemia and cellular hypoxia are poorly understood, and inter-individual differences in performance at altitude and outcome in critical illness remain unexplained. We propose ...

    Authors: Denny ZH Levett, Daniel S Martin, Mark H Wilson, Kay Mitchell, Sundeep Dhillon, Fabio Rigat, Hugh E Montgomery, Monty G Mythen and Michael PW Grocott
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:98
  25. When a patient experiences an event other than the one of interest in the study, usually the probability of experiencing the event of interest is altered. By contrast, disease-free survival time analysis by st...

    Authors: Hyun J Lim, Xu Zhang, Roland Dyck and Nathaniel Osgood
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:97
  26. Hitherto, risk prediction models for preoperative ultrasound-based diagnosis of ovarian tumors were dichotomous (benign versus malignant). We develop and validate polytomous models (models that predict more th...

    Authors: Ben Van Calster, Lil Valentin, Caroline Van Holsbeke, Antonia C Testa, Tom Bourne, Sabine Van Huffel and Dirk Timmerman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:96
  27. Disgust sensitivity is defined as a predisposition to experiencing disgust, which can be measured on the basis of the Disgust Scale and its German version, the Questionnaire for the Assessment of Disgust Sensi...

    Authors: Katja Petrowski, Sören Paul, Gabriele Schmutzer, Marcus Roth, Elmar Brähler and Cornelia Albani
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:95
  28. US military engagements have consistently raised concern over the array of health outcomes experienced by service members postdeployment. Exploratory factor analysis has been used in studies of 1991 Gulf War-r...

    Authors: Molly L Kelton, Cynthia A LeardMann, Besa Smith, Edward J Boyko, Tomoko I Hooper, Gary D Gackstetter, Paul D Bliese, Charles W Hoge and Tyler C Smith
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:94
  29. The smallest difference to be detected in superiority trials or the largest difference to be ruled out in noninferiority trials is a key determinant of sample size, but little guidance exists to help researche...

    Authors: Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Thomas Agoritsas, Christophe Combescure, Krisztina Bagamery, Delphine S Courvoisier and Thomas V Perneger
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:93
  30. The Bielefeld Partnership Expectations Questionnaire (BFPE) is a tool to assess attachment in the romantic relationships of adults. The attachment styles are operationalized as configuration patterns of scale ...

    Authors: Katja Petrowski, Hendrik Berth, Sören Paul, Gesine Grande, Yve Stöbel-Richter and Elmar Brähler
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:92
  31. Data entry errors are common in clinical research databases. Omitted data are of particular concern because they are more common than erroneously inserted data and therefore could potentially affect research f...

    Authors: Saveli I Goldberg, Andrzej Niemierko, Maria Shubina and Alexander Turchin
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:91
  32. Clinical evidence continues to expand and is increasingly difficult to overview. We aimed at conceptualizing a visual assessment tool, i.e., a matrix for overviewing studies and their data in order to assess t...

    Authors: Frederik Keus, Jørn Wetterslev, Christian Gluud and Cornelis JHM van Laarhoven
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:90
  33. The Youden index, the sum of sensitivity and specificity minus one, is an index used for setting optimal thresholds on medical tests.

    Authors: Niels Smits
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:89
  34. Recruitment and retention of patients for randomized control trial (RCT) studies can provide formidable challenges, particularly with minority and underserved populations. Data are reported for the Philadelphi...

    Authors: David A Webb, James C Coyne, Robert L Goldenberg, Vijaya K Hogan, Irma T Elo, Joan R Bloch, Leny Mathew, Ian M Bennett, Erika F Dennis and Jennifer F Culhane
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:88
  35. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients...

    Authors: Roelof Risselada, Hester F Lingsma, Andrew J Molyneux, Richard SC Kerr, Julia Yarnold, Mary Sneade, Ewout W Steyerberg and Miriam CJM Sturkenboom
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:86
  36. One of the most commonly reported problems of randomised trials is that recruitment is usually slower than expected. Trials will cost more and take longer, thus delaying the use of the results in clinical prac...

    Authors: Katrien Oude Rengerink, Brent C Opmeer, Sabine LM Logtenberg, Lotty Hooft, Kitty WM Bloemenkamp, Monique C Haak, Martijn A Oudijk, Marc E Spaanderman, Johannes J Duvekot, Christine Willekes, Maria G van Pampus, Martina M Porath, Jim van Eyck, Marko J Sikkema and Ben Willem J Mol
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:85
  37. Health-related data at local level could be provided by supplementing national health surveys with local boosts. Self-completion surveys are less costly than interviews, enabling larger samples to be achieved ...

    Authors: Sarah Tipping, Steven Hope, Kevin Pickering, Bob Erens, Marilyn A Roth and Jennifer S Mindell
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:84
  38. There is a need for local level health data for local government and health bodies, for health surveillance and planning and monitoring of policies and interventions. The Health Survey for England (HSE) is a n...

    Authors: Jennifer S Mindell, Sarah Tipping, Kevin Pickering, Steven Hope, Marilyn A Roth and Bob Erens
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:83
  39. The COSMIN checklist is a tool for evaluating the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties of health-related patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the inter-rater ...

    Authors: Lidwine B Mokkink, Caroline B Terwee, Elizabeth Gibbons, Paul W Stratford, Jordi Alonso, Donald L Patrick, Dirk L Knol, Lex M Bouter and Henrica CW de Vet
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:82
  40. In prognostic studies model instability and missing data can be troubling factors. Proposed methods for handling these situations are bootstrapping (B) and Multiple imputation (MI). The authors examined the in...

    Authors: David Vergouw, Martijn W Heymans, George M Peat, Ton Kuijpers, Peter R Croft, Henrica CW de Vet, Henriëtte E van der Horst and Daniëlle AWM van der Windt
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:81
  41. Poor response is a major concern in public health surveys. In a population-based ORISCAV-LUX study carried out in Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg to assess the cardiovascular risk factors, the non-response rate was ...

    Authors: Ala'a Alkerwi, Nicolas Sauvageot, Sophie Couffignal, Adelin Albert, Marie-Lise Lair and Michèle Guillaume
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:80
  42. In longitudinal cohort studies, subjects may be lost to follow-up at any time during the study. This leads to attrition and thus to a risk of inaccurate and biased estimations. The purpose of this paper is to ...

    Authors: Noémie Soullier, Elise de La Rochebrochard and Jean Bouyer
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:79
  43. To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and ...

    Authors: Eleonora Dal Grande and Anne W Taylor
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:77
  44. The identification of health services research in databases such as PubMed/Medline is a cumbersome task. This task becomes even more difficult if the field of interest involves the use of diverse methods and d...

    Authors: Michael Simon, Elke Hausner, Susan F Klaus and Nancy E Dunton
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:76
  45. The CQ Index for the elderly, a quality-of-care questionnaire administered by conducting interviews, is used to assess clients' experiences in Dutch nursing homes and homes for the elderly. This article descri...

    Authors: Sjenny Winters, Mathilde H Strating, Niek S Klazinga, Rudolf B Kool and Robbert Huijsman
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:75
  46. Geographical health inequalities are naturally described by the variation in health outcomes between areas (e.g. mortality rates). However, comparisons made between countries are hampered by our lack of unders...

    Authors: Andrew L Jackson, Carolyn A Davies and Alastair H Leyland
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:74
  47. Children's health and health behaviour are essential for their development and it is important to obtain abundant and accurate information to understand young people's health and health behaviour. The Health B...

    Authors: Yang Liu, Mei Wang, Jorma Tynjälä, Yan Lv, Jari Villberg, Zhouyang Zhang and Lasse Kannas
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:73
  48. The purpose of Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is to code various types of Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) based on their anatomical location and severity. The Marshall CT Classification is used to identify thos...

    Authors: Mehdi M Lesko, Maralyn Woodford, Laura White, Sarah J O'Brien, Charmaine Childs and Fiona E Lecky
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2010 10:72

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