Moore A, Collins S, Carroll D, McQuay H: Paracetamol with and without codeine in acute pain: a quantitative systematic review. Pain. 1997, 70: 193-201. 10.1016/S0304-3959(96)03319-2.
Moore A, Collins S, Carroll D, McQuay H, Edwards J: Single dose paracetamol (acetaminophen), with and without codeine, for postoperative pain (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4. 2000, . Oxford: Update Software.
Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG: Empirical evidence of bias: dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA. 1995, 273: 408-412. 10.1001/jama.273.5.408.
Carroll D, Tramer M, McQuay H, Nye B, Moore A: Randomization is important in studies with pain outcomes: Systematic review of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in acute postoperative pain. Br J Anaesth. 1996, 77: 798-803.
Ernst E, White AR: Acupuncture for back pain. Arch Intern Med. 1998, 158: 2235-2241. 10.1001/archinte.158.20.2235.
Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, et al: Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?. Control Clin Trials. 1996, 17: 1-12. 10.1016/0197-2456(95)00134-4.
Khan KS, Daya S, Jadad AR: The importance of quality of primary studies in producing unbiased systematic reviews. Arch Intern Med. 1996, 156: 661-666. 10.1001/archinte.156.6.661.
Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, et al: Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses?. Lancet. 1998, 352: 609-613. 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)01085-X.
Moore RA, Collins SL, McQuay HJ: Variation in the placebo response rate: implications for individual trials and consequences for meta-analysis. In Proceedings of the 8th World Congress on Pain, Progress in Pain Research & Management, Vol 8. Editors Jensen TS, Turner JA & Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, IASP Press, Seattle,. 1997
Moore RA, Carroll D, Wiffen PJ, Tramèr M, McQuay HJ: Quantitative systematic review of topically-applied non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. BMJ. 1998, 316: 333-338.
Moore RA, Gavaghan D, Tramèr MR, Collins SL, McQuay HJ: Size is everything - large amounts of information are needed to overcome random effects in estimating direction and magnitude of treatment effects. Pain. 1998, 78: 217-220. 10.1016/S0304-3959(98)00133-X.
Tramèr MR, Reynolds DJM, Moore RA, McQuay HJ: Impact of covert duplicate publication on meta-analysis: a case study. BMJ. 1997, 315: 635-639.
Vickers A, Goyal N, Harland R, Rees R: Do certain countries produce only positive results? A systematic review of controlled trials. Control Clin Trials. 1998, 19: 159-166. 10.1016/S0197-2456(97)00150-5.
McQuay HJ, Moore RA: An evidence-based resource for pain relief. Oxford: Oxford University Press,. 1998
Smith LA, Oldman AD, McQuay HJ, Moore RA: Teasing apart quality and validity in systematic reviews: an example from acupuncture trials in chronic neck and back pain. Pain. 2000, 86: 119-132. 10.1016/S0304-3959(00)00234-7.
Jadad AR, Carroll D, Moore A, McQuay H: Developing a database of published reports of randomised clinical trials in pain research. Pain. 1996, 66: 239-246. 10.1016/0304-3959(96)03033-3.
Cooper SA: Single-dose analgesic studies: the upside and downside of assay sensitivity. In The design of analgesic clinical trials (Advances in Pain Research and Therapy Vol. 18). Edited by Max MB, Portenoy RK, and Laska EM. New York: Raven Press,. 1991, 117-124.
Moore A, McQuay H, Gavaghan D: Deriving dichotomous outcome measures from continuous data in randomised controlled trials of analgesics. Pain. 1996, 66: 229-237. 10.1016/0304-3959(96)03032-1.
Moore A, McQuay H, Gavaghan D: Deriving dichotomous outcome measures from continuous data in randomised controlled trials of analgesics: Verification from independent data. Pain. 1997, 69: 127-130. 10.1016/S0304-3959(96)03251-4.
Moore A, Moore O, McQuay H, Gavaghan D: Deriving dichotomous outcome measures from continuous data in randomised controlled trials of analgesics: Use of pain intensity and visual analogue scales. Pain. 1997, 69: 311-315. 10.1016/S0304-3959(96)03306-4.
Gardner MJ, Altman DG: Confidence intervals rather than P values: estimation rather than hypothesis testing. BMJ. 1986, 292: 746-750.
Cook RJ, Sackett DL: The number needed to treat: a clinically useful measure of treatment effect. BMJ. 1995, 310: 452-454.
Morris JA, Gardner MJ: Calculating confidence intervals for relative risk, odds ratios and standardised ratios and rates. In Statistics with confidence -confidence intervals and statistical guidelines. Edited by Gardner, MJ and Altman DG. London: British Medical Journal,. 1995, 50-63.
Bentley KC, Head TW: The additive analgesic efficacy of acetaminophen, 1000 mg, and codeine, 60 mg, in dental pain. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1987, 42: 634-640.
Skoglund LA, Skjelbred P, Fyllingen G: Analgesic efficacy of acetaminophen 1000 mg, acetaminophen 2000 mg, and the combination of acetaminophen 1000 mg and codeine phosphate 60 mg versus placebo in acute postoperative pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1991, 11: 364-369.
Stubhaug A, Grimstad J, Breivik H: Lack of analgesic effect of 50 and 100 mg oral tramadol after orthopaedic surgery: a randomized, double-blind, placebo and standard active drug comparison. Pain. 1995, 62: 111-118. 10.1016/0304-3959(95)00056-X.
Breivik EK, Barkvoll P, Skovlund E: Combining diclofenac with acetaminophen or acetaminophen-codeine after oral surgery: a randomized, double-blind single-dose study. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1999, 66: 625-635.
Gertzbein SD, Tile M, McMurty RY, et al: Analysis of the analgesic efficacy of acetaminophen 1000 mg, codeine phosphate 60 mg, and the combination of acetaminophen 1000 mg and codeine phosphate 60 mg in the relief of postoperative pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1986, 6: 104-107.
Vangen O, Doessland S, Lindbaek E: Comparative study of ketorolac and paracetamol/codeine in alleviating pain following gynaecological surgery. J Int Med Res. 1988, 16: 443-451.
Cooper SA, Breen JF, Giuliani RL: The relative efficacy of indoprofen compared with opioid-analgesic combinations. J Oral Surg. 1981, 39: 21-25.
Cooper SA, Firestein A, Cohn P: Double blind comparison of meclofenamate sodium with acetaminophen, acetaminophen with codeine and placebo for relief of postsurgical dental pain. J Clin Dent. 1988, 1: 31-34.
Cooper SA, Kupperman A: The analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen compared to acetaminophen with codeine. J Clin Dent. 1991, 2: 70-74.
Desjardins PJ, Cooper SA, Finizio T: Efficacy of low dose combination analgesics: acetaminophen/codeine, aspirin/butalbital/caffeine/codeine, and placebo in oral surgery pain. Anesth Prog. 1986, 33: 143-146.
Dionne RA, Snyder J, Hargreaves KM: Analgesic efficacy of flurbiprofen in comparison with acetaminophen, acetaminophen plus codeine, and placebo after impacted third molar removal. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1994, 52: 919-924.
Forbes JA, Beaver WT, White EH, White RW, Neilson GB, Shackleford RW: Diflunisal. A new oral analgesic with an unusually long duration of action. JAMA. 1982, 248: 2139-2142. 10.1001/jama.248.17.2139.
Forbes JA, Kolodny AL, Beaver WT, Shackleford RW, Scarlett VR: A 12 hour evaluation of the analgesic efficacy of diflunisal, acetaminophen, and acetaminophen codeine combination, and placebo in postoperative pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1983, 3: 47S-54S.
Forbes JA, Bates JA, Edquist IA, Burchfield WH, Smith FG, Schwartz MK, Kit V, Hyatt J, Bell WE, Beaver WT: Evaluation of two opioid-acetaminophen combinations and placebo in postoperative oral surgery pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1994, 14: 139-146.
Forbes JA, Jones KF, Smith WK, Gongloff CM: Analgesic effect of an aspirin codeine butalbital caffeine combination and an acetaminophen codeine combination in postoperative oral surgery pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1986, 6: 240-247.
Forbes JA, Butterworth GA, Burchfield WH, Yorio CC, Selinger LR, Rosenmertz SK, Beaver WT: Evaluation of flurbiprofen, acetaminophen, an acetaminophen-codeine combination, and placebo in postoperative oral surgery pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1989, 9: 322-330.
Forbes JA, Butterworth GA, Burchfield WH, Beaver WT: Evaluation of ketorolac, aspirin, and an acetaminophen-codeine combination in postoperative oral surgery pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1990, 10: 77S-93S.
Forbes JA, Kehm CJ, Grodin CD, Beaver WT: Evaluation of ketorolac, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and an acetaminophen codeine combination in postoperative oral surgery pain. Pharmacotherapy. 1990, 10: 94S-105S.
Heidrich G, Slavic Svircev V, Kaiko RF: Efficacy and quality of ibuprofen and acetaminophen plus codeine analgesia. Pain. 1985, 22: 385-397. 10.1016/0304-3959(85)90044-2.
Honig S, Murray KA: An appraisal of codeine as an analgesic: single dose analysis. J Clin Pharmacol. 1984, 24: 96-102.
Pande AC, Pyke RE, Greiner M, Cooper SA, Benjamin R, Pierce MW: Analgesic efficacy of the K-receptor agonist, Enadoline, in dental surgery pain. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1996, 19: 92-97.
Sunshine A, Marrero I, Olson N, McCormick N, Laska EM: Comparative study of flurbiprofen, zomepirac sodium, acetaminophen plus codeine, and acetaminophen for the relief of postsurgical dental pain. Am J Med. 1986, 80: 50-54.
Turek MD, Baird WM: Double blind parallel comparison of ketoprofen (Orudis), acetaminophen plus codeine, and placebo in postoperative pain. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988, 28: S23-8.
Quiding H, Haggquist SO: Visual analogue scale and the analysis of analgesic action. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1983, 24: 475-478.
Ahlstrom U, Fahraeus J, Quiding H, Strom C: Multiple doses of paracetamol plus codeine taken immediately after oral surgery. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1985, 2: 693-696.
Jacobson J, Bertilson SO: Analgesic efficacy of paracetamol/codeine and paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene in pain after episiotomy and ruptures in connection with childbirth. J Int Med Res. 1987, 15: 89-95.
Sagne S, Henrikson P, Kahnberg K, Thilander H, Bertilson S: Analgesic efficacy and side effect profile of paracetamol/codeine and paracetamol/dextropropoxyphene after surgical removal of a lower wisdom tooth. J Int Med Res. 1987, 15: 83-88.
Breivik EK, Bjornsson GA: Variation in surgical trauma and baseline pain intensity: effects on assay sensitivity of an analgesic trial. Eur J Oral Sci. 1998, 106: 844-852. 10.1046/j.0909-8836.1998.eos106403.x.
Breivik EK, Haanaes HR, Barkvoll P: Upside assay sensitivity in a dental pain model. Eur J Pain. 1998, 2: 179-186.
Moore RA: Understanding clinical trials: what have we learned from systematic reviews?. In Progress in Pain Research & Management. Edited by Devor M, Rowbotham MC, Weisenfeld-Hallin Z. IASP Press, Seattle,. 2000, 757-770.
Collins SL, Moore RA, McQuay HJ, Wiffen PJ: Oral ibuprofen and diclofenac in postoperative pain: a quantitative systematic review. Eur J Pain. 1998, 2: 285-291.
Smith LA, Carroll D, Edwards JE, Moore RA, McQuay HJ: Single dose ketorolac and pethidine in acute postoperative pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2000, 84: 48-58.
Benson K, Hartz AJ: A comparison of observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000, 342: 1878-1886. 10.1056/NEJM200006223422506.
Concato J, Shah N, Horwitz RI: Randomized, controlled trials, observational studies, and the hierarchy of research designs. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000, 342: 1887-1892. 10.1056/NEJM200006223422507.
MacLehose RR, Reeves BC, Harvey IM, Sheldon TA, Russell IT, Black AMS: A systematic review of comparisons of effect sizes derived from randomised and non-randomised studies. Health Technology Assessment. 2000, 4: 34-