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  1. Most electronic search efforts directed at identifying primary studies for inclusion in systematic reviews rely on the optimal Boolean search features of search interfaces such as DIALOG® and Ovid™. Our objective...

    Authors: Margaret Sampson, Nicholas J Barrowman, David Moher, Tammy J Clifford, Robert W Platt, Andra Morrison, Terry P Klassen and Li Zhang

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:7

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) is widely used for health surveys. The advantages of CATI over face-to-face interviewing are timeliness and cost reduction to achieve the same sample size and ge...

    Authors: Baohui Yang and Margo Eyeson-Annan

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:6

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Postal self-completion questionnaires offer one of the least expensive modes of collecting patient based outcomes in health care research. The purpose of this review is to assess the efficacy of methods of inc...

    Authors: Rachel A Nakash, Jane L Hutton, Ellen C Jørstad-Stein, Simon Gates and Sarah E Lamb

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:5

    Content type: Research article

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  4. PubMed is the most widely used method for searches of the medical literature, but fails to identify many relevant articles. Electronic citation tracking offers an alternative search method.

    Authors: Hannah Kuper, Amanda Nicholson and Harry Hemingway

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:4

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and constr...

    Authors: LB Mokkink, CB Terwee, DL Knol, PW Stratford, J Alonso, DL Patrick, LM Bouter and HCW de Vet

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:2

    Content type: Study protocol

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  6. In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD), however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequa...

    Authors: Peyman Jafari, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi and Javad Behboodian

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2006 6:1

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Delphi surveys with panels of experts in a particular area of interest have been widely utilized in the fields of clinical medicine, nursing practice, medical education and healthcare services. Despite this wi...

    Authors: Ralitsa B Akins, Homer Tolson and Bryan R Cole

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:37

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Postal questionnaires are widely used to collect outcome data on participants. However, a poor response to questionnaires will reduce the statistical power of the study and may introduce bias. A meta analysis ...

    Authors: Sarah Cockayne and David J Torgerson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:34

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Cochrane systematic reviews aim to provide readers with the most up-to-date evidence on the effects of healthcare interventions. The policy of updating Cochrane reviews every two years consumes valuable time a...

    Authors: Simon D French, Steve McDonald, Joanne E McKenzie and Sally E Green

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:33

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Rating scales like the visual analogue scale, VAS, and the verbal rating scale, VRS, are often used for pain assessments both in clinical work and in research, despite the lack of a gold standard. Interchangea...

    Authors: Iréne Lund, Thomas Lundeberg, Louise Sandberg, Cecilia Norrbrink Budh, Jan Kowalski and Elisabeth Svensson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:31

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Adaptive designs are becoming increasingly important in clinical research. One approach subdivides the study into several (two or more) stages and combines the p-values of the different stages using Fisher's comb...

    Authors: Markus Neuhäuser and Frank Bretz

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:30

    Content type: Research article

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  12. For analyzing a repeated ordinal response, it is common to use a multivariate cumulative logit model. This model may fit poorly, especially when a nonsymmetric response is available. In these cases, alternativ...

    Authors: Farid Zayeri, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Navid Khanafshar and Fatemeh Nayeri

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:29

    Content type: Research article

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  13. This study assessed the application of the Total Design Method (TDM) in a mail survey of Japanese dentists. The TDM was chosen because survey response rates in Japan are unacceptably low and the TDM had previo...

    Authors: Yukie Nakai, Peter Milgrom, Toshiko Yoshida, Chikako Ishihara and Tsutomu Shimono

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:27

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Placebo response rates in clinical trials vary considerably and are observed frequently. For new drugs it can be difficult to prove effectiveness superior to placebo. It is unclear what contributes to improvem...

    Authors: Harald Walach, Catarina Sadaghiani, Cornelia Dehm and Dick Bierman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:26

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Systematic reviewers seek to comprehensively search for relevant studies and summarize these to present the most valid estimate of intervention effectiveness. The more resources searched, the higher the yield,...

    Authors: Ellen T Crumley, Natasha Wiebe, Kristie Cramer, Terry P Klassen and Lisa Hartling

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:24

    Content type: Research article

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  16. It is generally believed that exhaustive searches of bibliographic databases are needed for systematic reviews of health care interventions. The CENTRAL database of controlled trials (RCTs) has been built up b...

    Authors: Pamela Royle and Norman Waugh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:23

    Content type: Research article

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  17. In order to detect potential disease clusters where a putative source cannot be specified, classical procedures scan the geographical area with circular windows through a specified grid imposed to the map. How...

    Authors: Jean Gaudart, Belco Poudiougou, Stéphane Ranque and Ogobara Doumbo

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:22

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Prediction intervals can be calculated for predicting cancer incidence on the basis of a statistical model. These intervals include the uncertainty of the parameter estimates and variations in future rates but...

    Authors: Bjørn Møller, Harald Weedon-Fekjær and Tor Haldorsen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:21

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Concerns have been raised about low participation rates of people from minority ethnic groups in clinical trials. However, the evidence is unclear as many studies do not report the ethnicity of participants an...

    Authors: Kate Jolly, Gregory Y Lip, Rod S Taylor, Jonathan W Mant, Deirdre A Lane, Kaeng W Lee and Andrew J Stevens

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:18

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Outcomes collected in randomized clinical trials are observations of random variables that should be independent and identically distributed. However, in some trials, the patients are randomized more than once...

    Authors: Iztok Hozo, Benjamin Djulbegovic, Otavio Clark and Gary H Lyman

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:17

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The interest of patients in participating in randomized clinical trials involving treatments has been widely studied, but there has been much less research on interest in preventive trials. The objective of th...

    Authors: Sirpa-Liisa Hovi, Matti Hakama, Piret Veerus, Mati Rahu and Elina Hemminki

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:12

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Adequate participant recruitment is vital to the conduct of a clinical trial. Projected recruitment rates are often over-estimated, and the time to recruit the target population (accrual period) is often under...

    Authors: Rickey E Carter, Susan C Sonne and Kathleen T Brady

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:11

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Cluster randomised trials can be susceptible to a range of methodological problems. These problems are not commonly recognised by many researchers. In this paper we discuss the issues that can lead to bias in ...

    Authors: Seokyung Hahn, Suezann Puffer, David J Torgerson and Judith Watson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:10

    Content type: Research article

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  24. To adequately assess individual studies and synthesize quantitative research on weight loss studies, transparent reporting of data is required. The authors examined the reporting quality of randomized trials i...

    Authors: Cheryl A Gibson, Erik P Kirk, James D LeCheminant, Bruce W Bailey Jr, Guoyuan Huang and Joseph E Donnelly

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:9

    Content type: Research article

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  25. To determine if the search technique that is used to sample randomized controlled trial (RCT) manuscripts from a field of medical science can influence the measurement of the change in quality over time in tha...

    Authors: Mark K Borsody and Chisa Yamada

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:7

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Failure to be comprehensive can distort the results of a systematic review. Conversely, extensive searches may yield unmanageable number of citations of which only few may be relevant. Knowledge of usefulness ...

    Authors: Ana P Betrán, Lale Say, A Metin Gülmezoglu, Tomas Allen and Lynn Hampson

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:6

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Epidemiological studies of exposures that vary with time require an additional level of methodological complexity to account for the time-dependence of exposure. This study compares a nested case-control appro...

    Authors: Vidal Essebag, Robert W Platt, Michal Abrahamowicz and Louise Pilote

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:5

    Content type: Research article

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  28. There is analytical potential for multiple cause of death data collected from death certificates. This study examines relationships of multiple causes of death as a function of factors available on the death c...

    Authors: Melanie M Wall, Jinzhou Huang, John Oswald and Diane McCullen

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:4

    Content type: Research article

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  29. In 2003, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a guidance document on the scope of "Part 11" enforcement. In this guidance document, the FDA indicates an expectation of a risk-based app...

    Authors: Rickey E Carter

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:3

    Content type: Debate

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  30. Methodological research to support searching for those doing systematic reviews of epidemiological studies is a relatively neglected area. Our aim was to determine how many databases it is necessary to search ...

    Authors: Pamela Royle, Lynda Bain and Norman Waugh

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:2

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Browne et al. [Browne, MacCallum, Kim, Andersen, Glaser: When fit indices and residuals are incompatible. Psychol Methods 2002] employed a structural equation model of measurements of target cell lysing by nat...

    Authors: Leslie A Hayduk, Hannah Pazderka-Robinson, Greta G Cummings, Merry-Jo D Levers and Melanie A Beres

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:1

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Cluster sample study designs are cost effective, however cluster samples violate the simple random sample assumption of independence of observations. Failure to account for the intra-cluster correlation of obs...

    Authors: Stephanie A Knox and Patty Chondros

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:30

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Many medical specialities have reviewed the statistical content of their journals. To our knowledge this has not been done in general practice. Given the main role of a general practitioner as a diagnostician ...

    Authors: Alan S Rigby, Gillian K Armstrong, Michael J Campbell and Nick Summerton

    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2004 4:28

    Content type: Research article

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