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  1. There is an unmet need for review methods to support priority-setting, policy-making and strategic planning when a wide variety of interventions from differing disciplines may have the potential to impact a he...

    Authors: Annariina M. Koivu, Patricia J. Hunter, Pieta Näsänen-Gilmore, Yvonne Muthiani, Jaana Isojärvi, Pia Pörtfors, Ulla Ashorn and Per Ashorn
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:268
  2. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) presents an unprecedented threat to global health worldwide. Accurately predicting the mortality risk among the infected individuals is crucial for prioritizing medical care and ...

    Authors: Cindy Feng, George Kephart and Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:267
  3. Long-term behavioral and health risk factors constitute a primary focus of research on the etiology of chronic diseases. Yet, identifying critical time-windows during which risk factors have the strongest impa...

    Authors: Maude Wagner, Francine Grodstein, Karen Leffondre, Cécilia Samieri and Cécile Proust-Lima
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:266
  4. Questionnaires remain one of the most common forms of data collection in epidemiology, psychology and other human-sciences. However, results can be badly affected by non-response. One way to potentially reduce...

    Authors: Benjamin Woolf and Phil Edwards
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:265
  5. Eligibility guidelines in research trials are necessary to minimise confounds and reduce bias in the interpretation of potential treatment effects. There is limited extant research investigating how being deem...

    Authors: Christopher P. Dwyer, Helen McAneney, Fionnuala M. Rogers, Robert Joyce and Sinéad M. Hynes
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:264
  6. Estimates of future survival can be a key evidence source when deciding if a medical treatment should be funded. Current practice is to use standard parametric models for generating extrapolations. Several eme...

    Authors: Benjamin Kearns, Matt D. Stevenson, Kostas Triantafyllopoulos and Andrea Manca
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:263
  7. AMSTAR-2 (‘A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews, version 2’) and ROBIS (‘Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews’) are independent instruments used to assess the quality of conduct of systematic reviews/...

    Authors: Mateusz J. Swierz, Dawid Storman, Joanna Zajac, Magdalena Koperny, Paulina Weglarz, Wojciech Staskiewicz, Magdalena Gorecka, Anna Skuza, Adam Wach, Klaudia Kaluzinska, Justyna Bochenek-Cibor, Bradley C. Johnston and Malgorzata M. Bala
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:261
  8. Markov system dynamic (MSD) model has rarely been used in medical studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of MSD model in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) natural history.

    Authors: Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae, Davood Khalili, Mozhgan Seif, Ehsan Bahramali, Fereidoun Azizi and Pezhman Bagheri
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:260
  9. In many applications of instrumental variable (IV) methods, the treatments of interest are intrinsically time-varying and outcomes of interest are failure time outcomes. A common example is Mendelian randomiza...

    Authors: Joy Shi, Sonja A. Swanson, Peter Kraft, Bernard Rosner, Immaculata De Vivo and Miguel A. Hernán
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:258
  10. Individual-patient data meta-analysis (IPD-MA) is an increasingly popular approach because of its analytical benefits. IPD-MA of observational studies must overcome the problem of confounding, otherwise biased...

    Authors: Fatema Tuj Johara, Andrea Benedetti, Robert Platt, Dick Menzies, Piret Viiklepp, Simon Schaaf and Edward Chan
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:257
  11. Propensity score matching is a statistical method that is often used to make inferences on the treatment effects in observational studies. In recent years, there has been widespread use of the technique in the...

    Authors: Daniele Bottigliengo, Ileana Baldi, Corrado Lanera, Giulia Lorenzoni, Jonida Bejko, Tomaso Bottio, Vincenzo Tarzia, Massimiliano Carrozzini, Gino Gerosa, Paola Berchialla and Dario Gregori
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:256
  12. The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected health systems and medical research worldwide but its impact on the global publication dynamics and non-COVID-19 research has not been measured. We hypothesized that...

    Authors: Marc Raynaud, Valentin Goutaudier, Kevin Louis, Solaf Al-Awadhi, Quentin Dubourg, Agathe Truchot, Romain Brousse, Nouredine Saleh, Alessia Giarraputo, Charlotte Debiais, Zeynep Demir, Anaïs Certain, Francine Tacafred, Esteban Cortes-Garcia, Safia Yanes, Jessy Dagobert…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:255
  13. Clinical trials routinely have patients lost to follow up. We propose a methodology to understand their possible effect on the results of statistical tests by altering the concept of the fragility index to tre...

    Authors: Benjamin R. Baer, Stephen E. Fremes, Mario Gaudino, Mary Charlson and Martin T. Wells
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:254
  14. The Oslo Sport Trauma Research Centre Questionnaire on Health Problems (OSTRC-H) has become a popular tool to monitor health status in athletes. Originally developed for adult athletes, the tool is today also ...

    Authors: Solveig E. Hausken-Sutter, Astrid Schubring, Stefan Grau, Klara Boije af Gennäs and Natalie Barker-Ruchti
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:252
  15. For valid accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA) data, several methodological aspects should be considered. We aimed to 1) visualize the applicability of absolute accelerometer cut-offs to classify PA i...

    Authors: Fabian Schwendinger, Jonathan Wagner, Denis Infanger, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss and Raphael Knaier
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:251
  16. Novartis and the University of Oxford’s Big Data Institute (BDI) have established a research alliance with the aim to improve health care and drug development by making it more efficient and targeted. Using a ...

    Authors: Ann-Marie Mallon, Dieter A. Häring, Frank Dahlke, Piet Aarden, Soroosh Afyouni, Daniel Delbarre, Khaled El Emam, Habib Ganjgahi, Stephen Gardiner, Chun Hei Kwok, Dominique M. West, Ewan Straiton, Sibylle Haemmerle, Adam Huffman, Tom Hofmann, Luke J. Kelly…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:250
  17. Scleroderma is a serious chronic autoimmune disease in which a patient’s disease state manifests in several irregularly spaced longitudinal measures of lung, heart, skin, and other organ systems. Threshold cro...

    Authors: Ji Soo Kim, Ami A. Shah, Laura K. Hummers and Scott L. Zeger
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:249
  18. Not all research findings are translated to clinical practice. Reasons for lack of applicability are varied, and multiple frameworks and criteria exist to appraise the general applicability of epidemiological ...

    Authors: Quoc Dinh Nguyen, Erica M. Moodie, Philippe Desmarais, Robert Goulden, Marie-France Forget, Eric Peters, Sahar Saeed, Mark R. Keezer and Christina Wolfson
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:248
  19. Participation of general practitioners is crucial for health care studies. However, recruiting them is an ongoing challenge and participation rates of general practitioners around the globe are often low. One ...

    Authors: Patrick Hennrich, Christine Arnold and Michel Wensing
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:247
  20. Although discontinuation is common in clinical trials, no study has been conducted to analyse the current situation and reasons for the suspension or discontinuation of drug clinical trials in China. This stud...

    Authors: Ben-nian Huo, Mao-lin Ai, Yun-tao Jia, Yao Liu, Yang Wang, Nan-ge Yin and Lin Song
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:246
  21. Multilevel logistic regression models are widely used in health sciences research to account for clustering in multilevel data when estimating effects on subject binary outcomes of individual-level and cluster...

    Authors: Nicholas Siame Adam, Halima S. Twabi and Samuel O.M. Manda
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:245
  22. Graphical displays and data visualization are essential components of statistical analysis that can lead to improved understanding of clinical trial adverse event (AE) data. Correspondence analysis (CA) has be...

    Authors: Márcio A. Diniz, Gillian Gresham, Sungjin Kim, Michael Luu, N. Lynn Henry, Mourad Tighiouart, Greg Yothers, Patricia A. Ganz and André Rogatko
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:244
  23. The purpose of a conference abstract is to summarize the main points of a research-related report that will be presented at an academic conference. However, some conferences accept and publish abstracts withou...

    Authors: Darko Novak and Livia Puljak
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:243
  24. Identifying successful strategies to improve participant retention in longitudinal studies remains a challenge. In this study we evaluated whether non-traditional fieldworker shifts (after hours during the wee...

    Authors: N. F. Bell-Mandla, R. Sloot, G. Maarman, S. Griffith, A. Moore, S. Floyd, R. Hayes, S. Fidler, H. Ayles and P. Bock
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:242
  25. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) are increasingly used as composite outcomes in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. However, it is unclear how observational studies most co...

    Authors: Elliott Bosco, Leon Hsueh, Kevin W. McConeghy, Stefan Gravenstein and Elie Saade
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:241
  26. Previous research on data extraction methods in systematic reviews has focused on single aspects of the process. We aimed to provide a deeper insight into these methods by analysing a current sample of reviews.

    Authors: Roland Brian Büchter, Alina Weise and Dawid Pieper
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:240
  27. Longitudinal assessments of usage are often conducted for multiple substances (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana) and research interests are often focused on the inter-substance association. We propose a...

    Authors: Xiaolei Lin, Robin Mermelstein and Donald Hedeker
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:239
  28. The Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) can be used to transform observational health data to a common format. CDM transformation allows for analysis across disparate data...

    Authors: Patricia Biedermann, Rose Ong, Alexander Davydov, Alexandra Orlova, Philip Solovyev, Hong Sun, Graham Wetherill, Monika Brand and Eva-Maria Didden
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:238
  29. While well-conducted systematic reviews (SRs) can provide the best evidence on the potential effectiveness of acupuncture, limitations on the methodological rigour of SRs may impact the trustworthiness of thei...

    Authors: Leonard Ho, Fiona Y. T. Ke, Charlene H. L. Wong, Irene X. Y. Wu, Andy K. L. Cheung, Chen Mao and Vincent C. H. Chung
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:237
  30. Research on germline genetic variants relies on enough eligible participants which is difficult to achieve for rare diseases such as childhood cancer. With self-collection kits, participants can contribute gen...

    Authors: Nicolas Waespe, Sven Strebel, Denis Marino, Veneranda Mattiello, Fanny Muet, Tiago Nava, Christina Schindera, Fabien N. Belle, Luzius Mader, Adrian Spoerri, Claudia E. Kuehni and Marc Ansari
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:236
  31. Re-randomisation trials involve re-enrolling and re-randomising patients for each new treatment episode they experience. They are often used when interest lies in the average effect of an intervention across a...

    Authors: Brennan C. Kahan, Ian R. White, Sandra Eldridge and Richard Hooper
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:235
  32. Retaining participants over time is a frequent challenge in research studies evaluating long-term health outcomes. This study’s objective was to compare the impact of prepaid and postpaid incentives on respons...

    Authors: Morgan M. Millar, Lenora M. Olson, John M. VanBuren, Rachel Richards, Murray M. Pollack, Richard Holubkov, Robert A. Berg, Joseph A. Carcillo, Patrick S. McQuillen, Kathleen L. Meert, Peter M. Mourani and Randall S. Burd
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:233
  33. Childhood malnutrition is a major cause of child mortality under the age of 5 in the sub-Saharan Africa region. This study sought to identify the risk factors and spatial distribution of the composite index of...

    Authors: Haile Mekonnen Fenta, Temesgen Zewotir and Essey Kebede Muluneh
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:232
  34. The COVID-19 public health crisis has produced an immense and quickly evolving body of evidence. This research speed and volume, along with variability in quality, could overwhelm public health decision-makers...

    Authors: Sarah E. Neil-Sztramko, Emily Belita, Robyn L. Traynor, Emily Clark, Leah Hagerman and Maureen Dobbins
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:231
  35. Patient satisfaction or experience with colorectal cancer screening can determine adherence to screening programs. An evaluation of validated patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for measuring experience ...

    Authors: A. Selva, C. Selva, Y. Álvarez-Pérez, N. Torà, P. López, R. Terraza-Núñez, V. Rodríguez and I. Solà
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:230
  36. After activation of the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) in 2012, hospitals nationwide experimented broadly with the implementation of Transitional Care (TC) strategies to reduce hospital readmiss...

    Authors: Glen Mays, Jing Li, Jessica Miller Clouser, Gaixin Du, Arnold Stromberg, Brian Jack, Huong Q. Nguyen and Mark V. Williams
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:228
  37. Data harmonization is a powerful method to equilibrate items in measures that evaluate the same underlying construct. There are multiple measures to evaluate dementia related behavioral symptoms. Pre-statistic...

    Authors: Diefei Chen, Eric Jutkowitz, Skylar L. Iosepovici, John C. Lin and Alden L. Gross
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:227
  38. Mediation analysis methodology underwent many advancements throughout the years, with the most recent and important advancement being the development of causal mediation analysis based on the counterfactual fr...

    Authors: Judith J. M. Rijnhart, Sophia J. Lamp, Matthew J. Valente, David P. MacKinnon, Jos W. R. Twisk and Martijn W. Heymans
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:226
  39. There is a growing need for methods that acknowledge and successfully capture the dynamic interaction between context and implementation of complex interventions. Case study research has the potential to provi...

    Authors: Sara Paparini, Chrysanthi Papoutsi, Jamie Murdoch, Judith Green, Mark Petticrew, Trisha Greenhalgh and Sara E. Shaw
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:225
  40. Network meta-analysis (NMA) has attracted growing interest in evidence-based medicine. Consistency between different sources of evidence is fundamental to the reliability of the NMA results. The purpose of the...

    Authors: Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Sofia Tsokani, Ian R. White, Guido Schwarzer, Gerta Rücker, Dimitris Mavridis, Julian P. T. Higgins and Georgia Salanti
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:224
  41. An increasing number of systematic reviews assessed the safety of surgical interventions over time. How well these systematic reviews were designed and conducted determines the reliability of evidence. In this...

    Authors: Xiaoqin Zhou, Linji Li, Lifeng Lin, Ke Ju, Joey S. W. Kwong and Chang Xu
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:223
  42. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), especially multicentric, with complex interventions are methodically challenging. Careful planning under everyday conditions in compliance with the relevant international q...

    Authors: Sabine Striebich, Elke Mattern, Theresa Oganowski, Rainhild Schäfers and Gertrud Ayerle
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:222
  43. Statistical inference based on small datasets, commonly found in precision oncology, is subject to low power and high uncertainty. In these settings, drawing strong conclusions about future research utility is...

    Authors: Arjun Sondhi, Brian Segal, Jeremy Snider, Olivier Humblet and Margaret McCusker
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:221
  44. Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) are subjective outcomes of disease and/or treatment in clinical research. For effective evaluations of PROs, high response rates are crucial. This study assessed the impact of ...

    Authors: Olaf M. Neve, Peter Paul G. van Benthem, Anne M. Stiggelbout and Erik F. Hensen
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:220
  45. With the dramatic increase in the pipeline for new sickle cell disease (SCD) therapies in recent years, the time is ripe to ensure a robust body of evidence is available for decision making by regulators, paye...

    Authors: Ellen Tambor, Matoya Robinson, Lewis Hsu, Hsing-Yuan Chang and Jennifer Al Naber
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:219
  46. Vascular prevention trials typically use dichotomous event outcomes although this may be inefficient statistically and gives no indication of event severity. We assessed whether ordinal outcomes would be more ...

    Authors: Lisa J. Woodhouse, Alan A. Montgomery, Jonathan Mant, Barry R. Davis, Ale Algra, Jean-Louis Mas, Jan A. Staessen, Lutgarde Thijs, Andrew Tonkin, Adrienne Kirby, Stuart J. Pocock, John Chalmers, Graeme J. Hankey, J. David Spence, Peter Sandercock, Hans-Christoph Diener…
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:218
  47. Kruskal-Wallis H test from the bank of classical statistics tests is a well-known nonparametric alternative to a one-way analysis of variance. The test is extensively used in decision-making problems where one...

    Authors: Rehan Ahmad Khan Sherwani, Huma Shakeel, Wajiha Batool Awan, Maham Faheem and Muhammad Aslam
    Citation: BMC Medical Research Methodology 2021 21:215

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